|Abstract: ||摘要:海洋真菌在海岸生態系統是不可或缺的生物體，依棲地的不同，可分為不同的生態族 群，包括紅樹林、沙岸及岩岸等等。大部分海洋真菌都是腐生性，主要是生長在已死的 植物纖維組織上。台灣缺乏對海洋真菌的研究，申請人最近才從13 個紅樹林記錄了55 種絕對性海洋真菌；而岩岸海洋真菌方面，前人只記錄了27 種，申請人最近在台灣東 北部發現了37 種岩岸海洋真菌，有多數種類是屬於溫帶種。 為什麼在台灣可發現溫帶海洋真菌種？已知海洋真菌是從陸上入侵至海洋環境，現 在其分佈是因為物種隔離分化？亦或是海洋真菌可透過海洋擴散到世界各地，能夠適應 各地環境而可存活生長和繁殖？因此，本研究的目的是：(1) 記錄台灣岩岸海洋真菌之 多樣性、(2) 對比台灣與温帶地區(包括英國和丹麥) 岩岸海洋真菌之多樣性，以及(3) 分析廣佈性海洋真菌(Ceriosporopsis halima、Corollospora maritima、Halosphaeriopsis mediosetigera 和Lignincola laevis)地理分離種的親緣關係。 本研究開始後一年半會在台灣東北部岩岸進行採集，也計劃至英國和丹麥採集廣佈 性海洋真菌地理分離種；另外，從第二年開始會進行親緣關係部份實驗，把分離出來之 菌種，做核醣體基因分離和序列分析。研究結果將對台灣岩岸海洋真菌多樣性及海洋真 菌現有的世界分佈有更深入的認識，分離出來之菌種未來將可用作應用研究。|
Abstract:Marine fungi are an important group of organisms in marine ecosystems as they represent a diverse range of saprobes, pathogens and symbionts that form an integral part of coastal systems. Obligate marine fungi grow on woody tissues, leaves, fruits, reed, sea grasses, algae and seaweeds but can also be found on animal exoskeletons, keratinaceous substrates, sediments, sea foam and seawater. Little has been done on the diversity of marine fungi in Taiwan, in particular, those on rocky shores. Recently, 55 species of marine mangrove fungi were documented from 13 mangrove stands in Taiwan. Marine fungi on rocky shores are comparatively well-studied in temperate areas, little is known on the diversity of marine fungi on rocky shores in tropical areas. A few fieldtrips to the northern and northeastern side of Taiwan by the applicant revealed that many of the collected fungi are common in the temperate areas, such as Ondiniella torquata, Remispora maritima and R. quadriremis. Why can these so-called ‘temperate species’ be collected in Taiwan? A terrestrial origin of marine fungi based on phylogenetic analysis of the SSU and LSU rRNA gene was suggested, was vicariance the reason causing the current distribution of marine fungi? Or else, are propagules of marine fungi able to disperse over long distances through the ocean and physical environment at a particular location determines growth and reproduction? Therefore, the objectives of the proposed study are: (1) to survey the diversity of marine fungi on rocky shores in Taiwan, (2) to compare the diversity of marine fungi on rocky shores between Taiwan and Europe (Denmark and UK), and (3) to determine the phylogenetic relationships between isolates of the cosmopolitan species including Ceriosporopsis halima, Corollospora maritima, Halosphaeriopsis mediosetigera, and Lignincola laevis, collected in Taiwan and Europe, and from culture collections using phylogenetic analysis of the intergenic spacer regions (ITS) of the rRNA gene. The first 1 ½ years of the project will be dedicated to the collection of wood samples from various locations in northern and northeastern Taiwan. Moreover, two oversea sampling trips, including UK and Denmark, will be made in the first 2 years to collect isolates of C. halima, C. maritima, H. mediosetigera, and L. laevis. Isolates of the above species will also be requested from various culture collections in the first year. Phylogenetic analysis of the ITS regions of the nuclear rRNA gene of the above fungi will be performed in the second and third year. ITS regions are extremely variable in length and base composition, which are useful in differentiating isolates of the same species. The results of the proposed study will: (1) facilitate a better understanding on the diversity of marine fungi on rocky shores in Taiwan, (2) uncover the historical reason causing the current distribution of marine fungi, either by vicariance or dispersal through the ocean, and (3) enable the collection of cultures of marine fungi for applied research.