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Title: 海洋子囊菌門之親緣關係史研究
Phylogeny of Marine Ascomycota
Authors: 彭家禮
Contributors: NTOU:Institute of Marine Biology
Date: 2009-08
Issue Date: 2011-06-28T07:02:26Z
Publisher: 行政院國家科學委員會
Abstract: 摘要:全球已知共有530種海洋真菌,其中包括有251屬424種屬子囊菌門, 9屬12種屬擔子菌門,以及61屬94種屬有絲分裂真菌。在子囊菌門裏, Halosphaeriales是最大的海洋真菌目,有52屬121種真菌,包含32個單型屬。傳統上,形態特徵一向是海洋真菌分類上的重要標準,尤其孢子和孢子附屬器的形態與個體發生為Halosphaeriales目內屬間的分類依據。近年被發現的新種海洋真菌種類越來越多,單靠形態特徵並不足以把真菌作一個明確的分類,其他因素有:(1) 真菌的形態特徵比較少;(2) 對形態的演化認識不足;(3) 某些形態特徵是從平衡演化或趨同演化而來的,例如括孢子附屬器、溶解性子囊及雙囊壁子囊。在近二十年來,利用分子分類技術去探討真菌親緣關係的研究逐年增加,亦產生了一個比較可靠的分類系統。本研究計畫有三大目標: (1) 把在台灣發現的新種海洋真菌做進一步的歸類; (2) 確定爭議較大的屬,如: Aniptodera、Ceriosporopsis、Halosarpheia及Lulworthia與其相關屬的親緣關係; (3) 把海洋有絲分裂真菌(包括Cirrenalia及Trichocladium) 歸類在現有的分類系統中。本研究利用核醣體的小亞基次單元體及大亞基次單元體去探討以上海洋真菌的分類問題。第一年已從本研究所產生的Cirrenalia屬和 Cumulospora 屬的序列,加上從NCBI基因庫的相關序列作分析,發現無性真菌Cirrenalia屬和 Cumulospora 屬的親緣關係都是多源的,也因此建立了8個新的屬去容納跟Cirrenalia屬和 Cumulospora 屬模式種無關的種,本研究結果將發表在國際期刊Mycological Progress。之前從竹南紅樹林發現一新種海洋真菌Sedecimiella taiwanensis,分析核醣體的小亞基次單元體及大亞基次單元體部份序列的親緣關係發現,它在分類上屬於Hypocreales目,研究結果已寫成論文,投到國際期刊Botanica Marina。本研究計畫的第二年目標包括:(1)分析Trichocladium 屬內海洋種類的核醣體小亞基次單元體、大亞基次單元體及基因間隔區的序列;以及(2) 把第一年從紅樹林採集到的不同Aniptodera種 (A. chesapeakensis, A. lignatilis, A. nypae, A. intermedia, A. longispora) 作定序並分析,探討Aniptodera 屬的單源性。
Abstract:Traditionally, morphology was important in the classification of marine fungi. In Halosphaeriales, morphology and ontogeny of ascospore and ascospore appendages are instrumental in the delineation of different genera. Often there are insufficient morphological characters that can be used to make taxonomic decisions and also, the evolution of most morphological characters is difficult to trace. Furthermore, some structures are possibly acquired by parallel or convergent evolution, such as appendaged ascospores, deliquescing asci and bitunicate asci. In the last two decades, DNA sequence characters have been used to answer different levels of taxonomic questions and test various evolutionary hypotheses, and thus, leading to a more natural classification system in fungi. The objectives of this study are to: 1. to determine the higher taxonomic classification of a number of new filamentous fungi isolated from Taiwan, 2. to resolve the phylogenetic relationships of the following problematic genera complexes in the Halosphaeriales and the Lulworthiales: (i) Aniptodera/Halosarpheia complex, (ii) Ceriosporopsis complex and (iii) Lulworthia complex, and 3. to link a number of anamorphic marine fungi to their teleomorphic counterparts including: (i) Cirrenalia and (ii) Trichocladium. Phylogenetic analyses of the nuclear small (SSU) and large (LSU) subunit rDNA sequences confirmed the polyphyly of the anamorphic genera Cirrenalia and Cumulospora. These result will be published in the international refereed journal Mycological Progress. A new fungus, Sedecimiella taiwanensis, isolated from mangrove wood in Zhunan was inferred to be a member of the Hypocreales by SSU and LSU rDNA sequence. A manuscript reporting this finding has been submitted to the international refereed journal Botanica Marina. In the second year of the project, sequences of the SSU, LSU and ITS (intergenic spacers) of the marine Trichocladium species will be analysed. Many marine species of Aniptodera have also been collected from various mangroves in Taiwan and Thailand, including A. chesapeakensis (appendaged and unappendaged forms), A. lignatilis, A. nypae, A. intermedia and A. longispora. These cultures will be sequenced to test the monophyly of the genus, Aniptodera.
Relation: NSC98-2621-B019-002-MY3
Appears in Collections:[Institute of Marine Biology] Research Reports

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