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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/8618

Title: 利用基因技術做為台灣重要魚種旗魚及其加工品之種別鑑定研究
Studies on Species Identification of Important Raw and Processed Marlin Fish Products in Taiwan by Using Dna Techniques
Authors: 黃登福
Contributors: NTOU:Department of Food Science
國立臺灣海洋大學:食品科學系
Keywords: 鮪魚;旗魚;鰹魚;粒線體DNA;基因技術;魚種鑑定
Tuna;Billfish;skipjack;mitochondrial DNA;Gene technology;Fish species identification
Date: 2006-01
Issue Date: 2011-06-28T05:51:49Z
Publisher: 行政院衛生署
Abstract: 摘要:鮪魚為本省重要的遠洋漁獲之一。常見種類包括:長鯺鮪、大目鮪、黑鮪、南方黑鮪。其利用性,依其魚肉顏色的深淺而不盡相同,鮪肉肉質很新鮮時,肉色鮮紅,大多供做生食之原料,鮮度不好時則作為冷凍鮪魚或罐頭鮪魚之加工原料。台灣鮪類的生產量,以長鰭鮪最多,其魚肉為淡粉紅色,蒸煮後則肉色接近白色,甚少用來生食,大多供作鮪魚類罐頭的加工原料,也是外銷冷凍加工的重要原料。鮪魚罐頭加工業在1970年代開始為本省重要之水產加工業,所做之鮪魚油漬罐頭、水煮罐頭大多外銷歐、美,為國內重要之外銷水產品之一。 旗魚則為台灣另一重要之高經濟價值的洄游性魚類,在魚種類別上,台灣補獲的旗魚以黑皮旗魚及劍旗魚為最多。其餘為紅肉旗魚、白皮旗魚、芭蕉旗魚,依原料魚種的不同,其消費方式亦不盡相同。含脂量高且肉質佳者均供作生魚片之原料,其餘則供應國內餐廳之用,汰選後的冰藏原料則供國內零售市場及供應魚丸、魚鬆等加工業者使用。 旗魚的肌肉纖維雖然較細,但因肌纖維較長,所以本省早期即以旗魚做為魚鬆的高級原料,其製品有「旗魚脯」及「旗魚酥」2種。旗魚魚肉由於具有良好的煉製品膠形成,所以本省傳統市場中,旗魚丸或旗魚包餡魚丸亦為常見的一項水產加工品。 鰹魚通稱煙仔,在本省常見者包括正鰹、條鰹、點鰹、圓花鰹等4種。正鰹是做鰹節的最佳原料,遠洋漁業捕獲之冷凍原料,也是油漬鰹罐頭的主要原料。台灣所謂之海底雞油漬鮪魚,其實很多是利用條鰹替代長鰭鮪所製成者。 點鰹是做生鮮煙仔片直接煎蒸烹飪的最好材料,做成油漬罐頭雖然肉色較暗,但因含油較多相當可口。圓花鰹體型最小,產量最多,是油漬鰹的最主要原料,魚體含油較少,亦是做鰹荒節的主要原料。 以鰹魚為原料的加工製品,包括有油漬鰹魚罐頭、鰹節、煮乾鰹等。鰹節俗稱柴魚,以正鰹為原料所製成者才稱的上正鰹節製品鰹節,依其型態可分以背肉製成的雄節,以腹肉製成的雌節及以背腹肉製成的龜節,以小型鰹節所製成者因不修邊也不發霉故稱荒節或鬼節。 綜合上述資料,高級魚類鮪魚、旗魚與鰹魚原料之魚種由外觀就不容易判斷,更何況經過上述加工過程後之高級魚類產品幾乎可說是無法判斷其原料魚種來源。因此假冒之案例在國內外時常發生,造成國際貿易及交易之糾紛。而目前AOAC已接受多種分析法以做為魚種鑑定用,其中不乏蛋白質和基因兩方面,然而蛋白質易受冷藏、冷凍及加工條件不同而改變,且依學者之研究結果顯示cytochrome b gene為種屬判別之最佳資訊。因此本研究擬利用cytochrome b gene之遺傳特異性來作為鮪魚、旗魚、鰹魚及其加工品之魚種鑑別,第一年已完成應用洋菜膠體電泳法探討台灣周圍海域產之鮪魚其受冷凍、冷藏及加工條件所獲得之基因指紋資料,進一步已分析其差異及利用限制酶切位技術以開發其原料魚種及加工品罐頭間之辨種技術;第二年則應用相同技術,設計不同引子,建立分析旗魚原料及其加工品旗魚丸和旗魚鬆魚種鑑別之基因技術分析法等;第三年則繼續建立分析鰹魚及其加工品柴魚片之基因圖譜差異性及其種別鑑定法。 上述成果,不僅在學術上建立鮪魚、旗魚、鰹魚原料種屬間基因DNA之相關性,在國際上可建立創新尖端的科技地位,開發肉類食品加工品摻假之先進鑑別技術,對肉類食品標示之信用度,建立了國際可依據的標準規範。本研究第一年成果已建立台灣常見遠洋鮪魚魚種新鮮原料及加工品之基因鑑定,經實際應用於鮪魚生魚片及鮪魚罐製品,發現鮪魚生魚片均無假冒之現象,而罐製品則有20%疑假冒。此成果已整理擬投於J. Food Sci. 中。
Abstract:Tuna is an impotrant pelagic capture in Taiwan, the familiar species in Taiwan are bluefin tuna (Thunnus thynnus), albacore (T. alalunga), bigeye tuna (T. obesus) and yellowfin tuna (T. albacares). Tuna is a high-price fish, and different species of tuna are quite different in cost. Bluefin tuna is the highest-price Thunnus species, and other raw fillets in the market are usually light meat, like bigeye tuna and yellowfin tuna. Traditionally, the raw material of canned tuna species is mainly white meat albacore. Billfish is another high economic pelagic capture in Taiwan, the familiar species in Taiwan are swordfish (Xiphias gladius), black marlin (Makaira indica), blue marlin (M. nigricans), sailfish (Istiophorus platyterus) and striped marlin (Tetrapturus audax). Among them, the amount of swordfish and blue marlin is larger than others. These billfish are highly favored in Taiwan. They were commonly used as a material of slices of meat (sashimi), dried fish floss and fish minced products. In Taiwan, skipjack mackerels are another high-price fish and have 4 species including Auxis thazard, A. rochei, Sarda orientalis and Euthynnus pelanis. These fish are commonly used as a material of katsuwobushi and can. The prices of raw materials and processed products are quite different depending on their species. Usually the above described high-price fish inducing tuna, billfish and skipjack mackerel are hard to differentiate fish species only depending on their morphology, Furthermore, their processed products are more difficult to identify fish species. Therefore, it is easy to produce the processed products by substituting with low price fish. In fact, such confusing issues often happen in the world for international trade. The objectives of this study are to establish the polymerase chain reaction (PCR) technology and sequence analysis to identify fish species in fresh, frozen, processed meats of tuna, billfish and skipjack mackerel. In the first year of this study, we used the directed sequencing and PCR-restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) to determine the genetic variation of four Tunnus species. Then we also developed gene probes to identify the species of frozen, fresh and canned tuna meat. Continuing this result, the second year of this study is to design the primers of cytochrome b gene in billfish. Then the fragment of cytochrome b gene will be analyzed and its PCR-RFLP will be also determined. Hence, the result could provide useful and academic technique in identifying the species of raw billfish meat and processed billfish products. The last (third) year of this study is to establish a direct sequencing and PCR-RFLP technology to determine the genetic variation of four skipjack mackerel. Then the processed products of skipjack mackerel could be identified their fish species by using cytochrome b gene sequencing and PCR-RFLP technology.
Relation: DOH95-TD-F-113-001(2/2)
URI: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw/ir/handle/987654321/8618
Appears in Collections:[食品科學系] 研究計畫

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