|Abstract: ||食物中毒事件和食品安全議題一直是各國關心的議題之一，這些議題在歐美國家被高度關注，隨著近年來層出不窮的食安問題與食物中毒事件之爆發，食品安全及衛生控管受到高度的重視，特別是近年來水產品之食品安全問題因相關事件樹枝增加，使水產品相關問題開始受到重視。台灣方面，水產品相關之食品安全問題多有所聞，若將水產品來源分為捕撈和養殖兩來源，我們發現水產品相關之食品安全問題多來自養殖類水產品，以食安事件為例，多為使用禁藥餵食養殖魚類之事件；以食物中毒事件為例，多為腸炎弧菌等病毒致使食用者中毒之事件。雖然食品安全問題主要被關注在食品安全與食品衛生之控管，但食品安全問題也會影響消費者購買該水產品之意願，亦會影響生產者之生產意願，兩者意願之變動影響該水產品市場之運銷價差。本研究以台灣養殖鱸魚為研究對象，首先建立台灣鱸魚之供需函數以取得其供需彈性，並利用供需彈性加上食物中毒事件與問題水產品事件之發生次數建立運銷價差模型。運銷價差模型首先分析邊際成本、寡買力量及寡賣力量對運銷價差之影響以了解鱸魚的市場結構，之後再分析食物中毒事件和問題水產品事件對運銷價差影響，同時觀察並比較食物中毒事件和問題水產品事件兩者對運銷價差的影響力。 市場結構方面，透過批發商對於批發市場和產地市場的猜測彈性，兩者的Lerner Index分別為0.0007817與0.0003958，代表鱸魚的批發市場與產地市場之市場結構屬於不完全競爭，由此可知批發商對於批發市場的寡占能力高於對產地市場的寡占能力。運銷邊際成本為不顯著，寡賣力量在1%的顯著水準下顯著，寡買力量在1%的顯著水準下顯著。 食品安全方面，研究上利用其與運銷價差之彈性變動進行分析，根據結果發現該方面對運銷價差之影響極大，食物中毒事件對於鱸魚運銷價差的彈性值為0.581692，表示當時食物中毒事件發生次數上升1%時，運銷價差的變動率為0.581692%；問題水產品事件對於鱸魚運銷價差的彈性值為0.287834，表示當時問題水產品事件發生次數上升1%時，運銷價差的變動率為0.287834%。同時也發現食物中毒事件和問題水產品事件發生次數兩者與鱸魚的運銷價差為正相關，表示消費者在購買魚產品時，鱸魚主要作為替代品，故當時食品安全相關事件發生時，消費者會因心理影響而選擇購買鱸魚作為替代品，使鱸魚的運銷價差增加。|
Food poisoning incidents and food safety issues have always been one of the topics of concern to all countries. These issues are highly concerned in Europe and the United States. With the recent emergence of food safety problems and food poisoning incidents, food safety and hygiene control are highly regulated. Especially in recent years, the food safety of seafood products has increased due to the increase in related incidents, and the issues related to seafood products have begun to be concerned. In Taiwan, there are many food safety issues related toseafood products. If the source of seafood products is divided into two sources of fishing and aquating, we find that the food safety problems related to seafood products are mostly from aquaculture seafood products, taking food safety incidents as an example. Most of them are incidents of using banned drugs to feed farmed fish; in the case of food poisoning incidents, most of them are caused by viruses such as Vibrio cholerae. Although food safety issues are mainly concerned with food safety and food hygiene control, food safety issues will also affect consumers' willingness to purchase the seafood products, and will also affect producers' willingness to produce. The market margins of the product market. In this study, the cultured seabass in Taiwan is used as the research object. First, the supply and demand function of Taiwan seabass is established to obtain the elasticity of supply and demand. The supply and demand elasticity and the number of occurrences of food poisoning incidents and problem seafood products are used to establish the market margins model. First, the market margins model is used to analyze the impact of marginal cost, oligopoly power and oligopsony power on the market margins to understand the market structure of the seabass, and then analyze the impact of food poisoning incidents and problem seafood products on the market margins, while observing and comparing food poisoning events. In terms of market structure, through the wholesalers' cross elasticity of the wholesale market and the farmed market, the Lerner Index of the two is 0.0007817 and0.0003958 respectively, which represents both the market structure of the wholesale market and the farmed market of the seabass are imperfectly competitive market. The oligopolistic power of the wholesale market is higher than the oligopolistic power of the farmed market. The marginal cost is not significant, the oligopoly power is significant at a significant level of 1%, and the oligopsony power is significant at a significant level of 1%. In terms of food safety, the research used the analysis of the elastic change of the difference between the delivery and the sales. According to the results, it was found that there are great impact on the market margins. The elasticity of the food poisoning incident on the market margins of the seabass is 0.581692, indicating that the number of food poisoning incidents increased. At 1%, the rate of change in the market margins is 0.581692%; the elasticity of the problem of the aquatic product for the seabass is 0.287834, indicating that the rate of change in the market margins of the problem is 0.287834% when the number of incidents of seafood products increased by 1%. At the same time, it is also fin that both the food poisoning incident and the number of occurrences of seafood products incidents are positively correlated with the market margins of the seabass, indicating that the seabass was mainly used as substitutes when purchasing fishery products, so when the food safety-related incident occurred, due to psychological effects, the purchasing of seabass as substitutes will be chosen to increase the market margins of seabass.