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Study on the Timing and Effect of Chain Restaurant Head-quarter Interventions on Hygienic Management by Electronic Auditing and Microbiological Analysis
|Authors: ||Hsiao, Wei-Lin|
|Contributors: ||NTOU:Department of Food Science|
Electronic auditing system;Microbiological testing;chain restaurant;RM-ANOVA;Box-and-whisker plot
|Issue Date: ||2020-07-03T08:43:47Z
|Abstract: || 本研究以直營連鎖餐飲業者為研究對象，分析其下7間門市連續14個月巡檢的電子巡檢結果及微生物檢驗結果，探討總公司介入的前後，作業現場缺失數量及微生物檢驗結果不合格率是否有顯著差異、微生物檢驗結果不合格率與相關的缺失數量之間是否有相關性、總公司應介入門市衛生管理的時機、總公司介入後的效應。 巡檢結果的部份，經RM-ANOVA分析後，第1個月至第14個月巡檢，門市缺失數量平均數從45.57降低至8.86，缺失項目數量從33.29降至8.00；建立責任歸屬，將缺失依不同責任歸屬進分類為總公司管理、現場管理總公司及現場管理；各責任歸屬的缺失項目數量，從第1個月至第14個月巡檢間皆有顯著的減少；微生物檢驗的部分，冷飲機出口塗抹微生物檢驗、人員手部塗抹微生物檢驗、食用冰塊微生物檢驗三項，於總公司制定標準作業流程後，微生物檢驗結果不合格率呈現下降的趨勢；飲用水微生物檢驗則無明顯趨勢。由總公司統一添購檢測儀器、統一制定環境與設備之清潔消毒標準作業程序及派遣稽查員定期進行門市巡檢或強制採樣等，能有效提升食品衛生安全。 總公司的介入時機為某項樣品當月微生物檢驗結果不合格率≧50.0%時，或連續3個月的微生物檢驗結果不合格率呈現升高的趨勢時，或某樣品連續不合格3個月以上且微生物菌量沒有減少的趨勢時；利用盒鬚圖檢視當月各門市的缺失數量或缺失項目數量，出現超過最大值的離群值時；或有門市連續3個月以上，缺失數量或缺失項目數量在盒鬚圖中有往最大值移動的趨勢，並超過Q3時；或發現已改善的缺失又再發生，並且連續出現2個月以上時，總共6個時機點。在實證對象分析中，利用2次以上的巡檢結果進行RM-ANOVA分析，若缺失數量有顯著性減少，表示總公司介入後的改善成效是顯著的。|
This study is aimed to establish restaurant head-quarter decision criteria to initiate intervention procedures against chain store sanitary management errors. A newly developed E-sanitation auditing system coupled with microbiological tests is adopted and inspected routinely for fourteen consecutive months over seven chain stores. Categorically, lack of head-quarter policy, irresponsible store management, and the mix of both are assumed to be the root-cause patterns in this study. Box-plot is used to identify the outlier(s) and the aftermath of effectiveness of headquarter intervention is investigated. During the 14 months, out of a total 105 checklists, the average number of errors per store decreased from 45.57 to 8.86, and the number of error items decreased from 33.29 to 8.00 as well as the number of error items belonging to each root-cause category was significantly decreased accordingly. Head-quarter policy were made for hand-wash, ice machine and cold drink dispensing machine sanitizing procedures which significant improvement were reflected by microbiological swabbing tests. Re-current period of the same error showed to be a good indicator to identify the responsible category where once a head-quarter policy was implemented, longer compliance period was noticed. On the other hand, same error was frequently occurred if the store management is accounted for. Hardware supports, such as rapid testing device for oil quality and sanitation equipment, from headquarter indicated to be an effective corrective action to rectify sanitary control in the chain stores, as well as routine sanitary audit and microbiological tests had shown to be some effective tools to reinforce food hygiene and safety control. The six timings of the intervention of the head-quarter are when the unqualified rate of microbiological testing results of a sample is more than 50.0%, or the unqualified rate of microbiological testing results of a sample is increasing for three consecutive months, or a sample is unqualified for three consecutive months and its unqualified rate of microbiological testing results isn't decreasing, or the number of errors or error items in box-and-whisker plot in each store in the same month has outliers, or for three consecutive months, the number of errors or error items in a store in the box-and-whisker plot has a tendency to move toward the maximum value and exceeds Q3, or the improved error has recurred and lest for more than two months. In the empirical analysis, the RM-ANOVA analysis was performed using the electronic auditing results of more than two months. If the number of errors was significantly decreasing, the effect of intervention of the head-quarter was significant.
|Appears in Collections:||[食品科學系] 博碩士論文|
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