|Abstract: ||目前全世界約有 3 億人罹患氣喘，台灣隨著全球工業化及三大火力發電廠興建緣故，空汙逐年加劇。台灣四面環海，對於海藻取得十分容易，可自海藻中萃取出海藻多醣，而硫酸多醣是海藻多醣中的一個特殊物質，因結構特殊具有生物活性，具有調節免疫細胞功能。本報告旨在觀察裙帶菜水萃物對氣喘相關症狀是否能產生影響，另外於基隆地區蒐集 PM2 觀察其與氣喘之關聯。將裙帶菜以熱水萃取後，得到產率 18.3 % 之裙帶菜水萃物 (Undaria pinnatifida water extracts, UPw) 。以RAW 264.7 測定萃取物的抗發炎能力，結果顯示 UPw 具有良好的抗發炎活性，而單獨 PM2 卻具有促發炎能力；從 P815 細胞模式來看，降低細胞脫顆粒可以減緩過敏反應，UPw 在前處理 30 min 後，再添加化合物 48/80 及 PM2 可有效減緩細胞的脫顆粒狀況，另經分析後得知 UPw 可抑制 Interluekin-4 (IL-4) 及 histamine 的釋放。單獨使 PM2 與細胞培養不同時間後後，經染色發現於 24 小時觀察到細胞具有脫顆粒現象。最後以動物試驗驗證細胞實驗之結果，餵食 UPw 可有效減緩血清及支氣管沖堤液中主要過敏因子免疫球蛋白 E (Immunoglobin, IgE) 與肺中 IL-4、IL-5 及 IL-13 等第二型輔助型 T 細胞 (Helper T cell type 2, Th2) 相關細胞因子，而 Th1中的 INF-γ 則有明顯提升，也可減緩發炎細胞在肺部組織的浸潤及減少黏液產生。此外在動物實驗額外添加 PM2 後，Th2 相關細胞因子及 IL-17 等也有明顯上升，Th1 中的 INF-γ 則有顯著下降，而相關發炎因子的表現量可藉由餵食 UPw 達到緩解功效，且也觀察到 PM2 具有佐劑的功能。綜合上述，裙帶菜水萃物可緩解細胞浸潤及黏液並改善 Th1/Th2 細胞及 Treg/Th17 細胞激素不平衡情形，進而顯著降低 IgE 之釋放，來改善氣喘相關症狀，期望未來裙帶菜水萃物可以輔助治療氣喘，使病患在治療時能有更多的選擇，也期望這份報告可以釐清現今對 PM2 的一些頭緒。|
At present, there are about 300 million people suffering from asthma in the world. With the industrialization and construction of thermal power plants in Taiwan, air pollution has been increasing year by year. In addition, Taiwan seaweeds are rich in resources, and sulfated polysaccharides are a special substance in seaweeds. It has been showed that sulfated polysaccharides have biological activity and the function of regulating immune cells. This report aims to study whether the Undaria pinnatifida water extracts (UPw) observe affect asthma-related symptoms. In addition, PM2 was collected in Keelung to observe its association with asthma. The yield was 18.3 % by water extract. In vitro, RAW264.7 was used to determine the anti-inflammatory effects of the extract. The results showed that UPw have an anti-inflammatory activity while PM2 alone had an inflammation effect. P815 was used to simulation allergy reaction. After 30 min UPw of pretreatment, the degranulation of the cells could effectively decrease. It was found that UPw could inhibit the release of interleukin-4 (IL-4) and histamine production and increase IFN-γ performance. PM2 was separately cultured for a different period of time. After 24 h, we observed that cell have a degranulation, and IL-4 was released. In vivo, UPw was fed to mice. According to the results of cytokine analyses, the allergic factor, immunoglobulin E (IgE), IL-2, IL-4, IL-5 and IL-13 in Th2 were significantly reduced, while INF-γ in Th1 was significantly increased. UPw also could decrease the infiltration of inflammatory cells in the lung tissue and reduce mucus production. In addition, after the addition of PM2 in animal experiments, Th2-related cytokines and IL-17 were also significantly increased, and INF-γ in Th1 were decreased significantly. The amount of associated inflammatory factors can be relieved by feeding UPw. PM2 has thus been observed to have an adjuvant function. In summary, Undaria pinnatifida water extracts could improve the balance between Th1/Th2 and Th17/Treg cells, also significantly reducing the release of IgE to improve asthma-related symptoms. This experiment showed that UPw has a potential to improve related symptoms in asthma. It is expected that asthma patients can have more option. Although PM2 pathway is not clear, we hope that this report can clarify some mechanisms.