|Abstract: ||鎖管 (Loligo edulis) 為頭足綱中重要的成員之一，具有商業重要性，並含有優質蛋白質、牛磺酸、礦物質、必需胺基酸與磷脂等其他營養物質，但由於其具有環狀肌肉，所以硬度非常堅韌，導致在開發銀髮族食品時出現困難，故本篇將探討使用不同軟化加工方式對鎖管硬度軟化與品質之影響，進而評估未來應用上的可行性。首先，軟化加工方式分為酵素處理、鹼處理以及熱風乾燥後復水，酵素處理分為注射組、浸泡組、真空迴旋振盪組、細胞破碎儀組及超聲波洗淨機組，分別使用鳳梨蛋白酶 (bromelain) 及木瓜蛋白酶 (papain) 進行軟化後滅菌；鹼處理分為浸泡組及超聲波洗淨機組，分別使用 2.0% 碳酸氫鈉及氫氧化鈉進行軟化後滅菌；熱風乾燥後復水分為 50℃ 及 60℃ 進行軟化後滅菌。在硬度及組織切片結果發現以酵素處理軟化效果最佳，且 papain 軟化效果較 bromelain 佳，其中以真空迴旋振盪處理 12 小時之 1.0% papain硬度最軟，為 4.68 x 104 N/m2，其次為注射 0.3% papain 之組別，硬度為 4.74 x 104 N/m2，而以 60℃ 熱風乾燥後復水之組別硬度最硬。經由不同方式軟化之鎖管仍保持新鮮狀態，其顏色較白、可溶性蛋白增加、抗氧化力上升、pH 下降，且可從電泳分析及組織切片發現酵素、鹼及熱風乾燥能有效地降解肌肉蛋白質。最後經由感官品評發現，控制組為評價最佳之組別，因為對於牙齒健全的銀髮族來說他們不喜歡硬度太軟且較無口感之組別，但是對於七十歲以上的銀髮族來說，他們是可以接受的。綜合上述而言，使用上述軟化方式能有效軟化鎖管之硬度，並保持鎖管原有的風味、營養價值及外觀。以化學搭配物理方式軟化效果較單獨只有化學處理佳，不僅能有效地軟化硬度，且能縮短處理時間，進行綜合評估後，以真空迴旋振盪處理的軟化效果最佳，最能保留鎖管的風味、營養價值與外觀，故其未來可應用於食品加工業上。|
Neritic squid (Loligo edulis) is a important species in the category of cephalopods. Not only it has great commercial importance, it also contains high quality protein, taurine, mineral, essential amino acid and phospholipid. Neritic squid mantle is tough and hard to splinter because muscle fibers show both radial and circular arrangement in the neritic squid muscle. Therefore, it is difficult to develop processed food aimed for the seniors. The purpose of this study is using to evaluate different softening methods addiction on hardness and quality of neritic squid (Loligo edulis). First, the softening methods are devided into three groups, enzymes treatment, alkalis treatment and rehydration after hot-air drying. The group of enzyme treatment is further classified into injection group, soaking group, vacuum orbital shaker group, ultrasonic processor group and ultrasonic cleaning group, bromelain and papain enzymes are used separately for each group to tender neritic squid before sterilization. As for the alkalis group, it is divided into soaking group and ultrasonic cleaning group, 2% sodium bicarbonate and sodium hydroxide are used separately to tender neritic squid before sterilization. The last group rehydration after hot air drying is divided into two groups, controlled by temperature 50℃ and 60℃ to tender neritic squid before sterilization. In terms of hardness and muscle biopsy, it has been found that enzyme treatment is the best way to tender neritic squid, and better results were obtained with papain compared to bromelain. The result of vacuum orbital shaker group using 1.0% papain enzyme for 12 hours shows the softest, followed by the injection group using 0.3% papain, and lastly by the group of rehydration after hot-air drying group using 60℃. The neritic squid is still fresh through different softening methods. After different treatments, the muscle color became whitening, pH and hardness values decreased. Total soluble protein contents and antioxidative ability increased. Protein degradation and a broken muscle fiber structure are observed through histological assay and SDS–PAGE. Finally, through the neritic squid sensory evaluation, it can be found that the control group shows the best feedback. The senior panelists have healthy teeth so they don’t like mushy and inelastic groups. But for the panelists over 70 years old, the hardness of neritic squid by different softening methods are acceptable. As mentioned above, these different softening methods are efficient. Not only these methods tender hardness but also maintain the original flavor, nutrition and appearance of neritic squid. It is more effective when chemical treatment goes with physical treatment. Overall, the best softening method is vacuum orbital shaker group. It maintains the original flavor, nutrition and appearance of neritic squid, thus indicates the potential development of this method in food industry.