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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/53579

Title: 環境因素對大型甲殼動物 (蝦) 與微型甲殼動物 (橈足類) 生理生態和生物特性之影響研究
Effects of environmental factors on the eco-physiology and life traits of a macro-crustacean (shrimp) and micro-crustacean (copepod)
Authors: Shagnika Das
姍妮
Contributors: NTOU:Institute of Marine Biology
國立臺灣海洋大學:海洋生物研究所
Keywords: 毒物學;毒物學;潮間灘地;美食奧螻蛄蝦;橈足類;微量金屬
Toxicology;trace metals;crustaceans;intertidal flats;mud shrimp;copepod
Date: 2019
Issue Date: 2020-07-03T08:34:09Z
Abstract: 本論文分成兩個主要部分:第一部分研究大型甲殼類─美食奧螻蛄蝦(俗稱鹿港蝦猴,Austinogebia edulis),第二部分研究小型甲殼類─近親真寬水蚤(Eurytemora affinis)這種橈足類動物。本文的目的是(1)探究螻姑蝦在生態工程上所扮演的角色,(2)調查鎘對螻姑蝦的氧化酵素和組織形態上有何影響,(3)評估在螻姑蝦自然棲地中,持久性有機污染物的時間與空間變化,(4)探討複合重金屬對近親真寬水蚤的影響及描述沉積物懸浮物對近親真寬水蚤有何影響,對多世代過程之影響。 針對第一點目的,我們著重在描述掘穴管壁和管腔間的顯著差異。螻姑蝦的掘穴管壁具有低滲透性的特色,可增強抗剪強度。從統計上來看,比較掘穴管壁和背景的沉積物組成,可發現顯著差異。掘穴管壁的有機質含量比單一隻螻姑蝦還要高上24倍,因此,螻姑蝦發揮了生態工程師的角色,將沉積物的特性轉化,其對生態系統造成顯著的生態影響。 此外,暴露於鎘中的抗氧化酵素(超氧化歧化酶[SOD]、過氧化氫酶[CAT]、穀胱甘過氧化酶[GPx])活性會隨著鎘濃度增加而減少,也會隨著螻姑蝦器官暴露於鎘的時間增長而減少。暴露於高濃度的鎘中,螻姑蝦的肝胰腺(hepatopancreas)可觀察到顯著傷害,如上皮細胞邊界消失、細胞自基膜脫落、細胞腫脹、壞死等,都是造成傷害的跡象。總結來說,藉由降低抗氧化酵素活性和傷害螻姑蝦主要器官的組織結構,鎘會對螻姑蝦造成氧化傷害。 持久性有機污染物的測量上,空間分布顯示與污染源的距離是最重要的決定性因子。因此,從這些污染物的分布來看,在工業區附近採集到的樣本有較高的濃度。多環芳香烴比例的分析結果顯示,熱裂解和石化相關之汙染來源皆存在。多氯聯苯混合物Aroclor1016和1260是工業區附近的主要來源,近年來雙對氯苯基三氯乙烷(DDT)也成了此區域的污染來源之一。整體來說,文中反映出底棲生物的邊界風險。 研究顯示,近親真寬水蚤若暴露於鉛中,雄性的急毒性半數致死濃度(LC50,96小時)是431.99 µg/l,比起雌性的394.27 µg/l有更低的敏感度。在所有暴露處理組別中,總體數量都於第二世代(F1)達到最低,因此死亡率也在此世代有所增加。在橈足類近親真寬水蚤體內的最高金屬生物累積,同樣在此世代達到更高的數值。由此觀之,繁殖力和存活率似乎與重金屬生物累積有關,匯整結果,可得知近親真寬水蚤的敏感度或適應性與微量金屬累積有直接關聯。在沉積物處理組別中雄性的百分比比例,比重金屬處理組和對照組來得少,多少表明了在多世代的暴露下,橈足類對重金屬和沉積物再懸浮的不同敏感度。
The present thesis constitutes two major sections, the first deals with macro crustaceans, mud shrimp Austinogebia edulis and the second with micro crustaceans, the copepod Eurytemora affinis. The objectives were to 1. Explore the role of A. edulis as an ecological engineer, 2. Effects of Cadmium (Cd) on oxidative enzymes and morphology in A. edulis, 3. To assess the spatial and temporal variation of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) in the natural habitat of A. edulis, 4. To explore the effect of combined heavy metals to E. affinis and to depict the effect of sediment in re-suspension to E. affinis by following a multigenerational approach. For the first objective, we highlight the significant differences between burrow walls and burrow lumen. The burrow wall of A. edulis showed low permeability and increased sheer strength. Statistically, a significant difference was noticed in the comparison between the sediment composition of the burrow wall and the background. The burrow wall consisted of a 24 times higher organic matter content than one individual of mud shrimp. Thus, they transform the sediment characteristics as an ecological engineer, which is expected to have a significant ecological impact on the ecosystem. Furthermore, on exposure to Cd the antioxidant enzyme (SOD, CAT, and GPx) activities decreased with increasing Cd concentration and extended exposure time in these organs of A. edulis. Significant damage of the hepatopancreas of A. edulis was noticed at higher concentrations of Cd, showing damages like the disappearance of epithelial cell boundaries, detachment of cells from the basal lamina, cellular swelling, necrosis, etc. In conclusion, Cd caused oxidative damage by reducing the activities of antioxidant enzymes and by damaging the tissue structure in major organs of A. edulis. For the measured POPs, the spatial distribution showed that the proximity to sources was the most important determining factor for the distribution of these contaminants showing greater concentrations in samples collected near the industrial parks. The analyzed PAH ratios determined an existence of both pyrolytic and petrogenic inputs. PCBs Aroclor 1016 and 1260 were the main sources near the industrial zone, with DDT inputs showing recent addition to the area. The overall study reflected a borderline risk to the benthic organisms. For E. affinis, the acute toxicity LC 50% (96h) for the exposure of Lead (Pb) was found to be 431.99 µg/l for males showing lower sensitivity than females with 394.27 µg/l. The total population became lowest in the 2nd generation (F1) for all the exposure treatments and also the mortality increased in this generation. The bioaccumulation of metals in the copepod E. affinis was also higher in this generation; thereby fecundity and survival appeared to be linked to the bioaccumulation of heavy metals and concluding that the sensitivity or fitness of E. affinis was directly connected to the trace metal accumulation. The percentage of males was less in the sediment treatment than the heavy metal and control. This observation can slightly indicate the different ways of copepod sensitivity to heavy metals and sediment in re-suspension when exposed for multiple generations.
URI: http://ethesys.lib.ntou.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=G0020434003.id
http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/53579
Appears in Collections:[海洋生物研究所] 博碩士論文

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