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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/53575

Title: 台灣珊瑚疾病調查
Coral disease survey in Taiwan
Authors: Huang, Ching-Yun
黃靖雲
Contributors: NTOU:Institute of Marine Biology
國立臺灣海洋大學:海洋生物研究所
Keywords: 珊瑚疾病;疾病盛行率;宿主偏好性;地區特殊性;珊瑚群聚-疾病-環境互動模型
coral disease;disease prevalence;host preference;locality particularity;coral community-disease-environment putative model
Date: 2019
Issue Date: 2020-07-03T08:34:06Z
Abstract: 珊瑚疾病過去已經被確定是造成珊瑚分布大幅衰退的原因之一,珊瑚礁的生物多樣性和豐富度也明顯下降。珊瑚疾病可導致進行性組織喪失並影響珊瑚的生長及繁殖能力和幼苗入添,進一步降低珊瑚礁物種組成多樣性。雖然珊瑚疾病的相關研究在過去四十年中有所增加,但在台灣周圍海域我們仍然知之甚少,本研究是第一次嘗試了解珊瑚疾病在台灣周圍海域分佈現狀的研究。研究使用帶狀穿越線法於2018年4月至8月間在東北角、東部海岸、墾丁、綠島、蘭嶼和澎湖南方四島進行了跨空間尺度調查,並於2018年10月至11月間在東北角、墾丁和綠島進行了另一次跨季節尺度調查。最終合計31條穿越線,調查範圍達3840平方公尺,全部檢查了20709個珊瑚個體,一共記錄到9種珊瑚疾病,包括黑帶病(black band disease, BBD)、擬黑帶症(BBD-like syndrome, BBD-like)、其他藍綠菌症(other cyanobacteria syndrome, CY)、骨骼侵蝕病(skeletal eroding band, SEB)、潰瘍性白斑(ulcerative white spots, UWS)、異常增生(growth anomalies, GAs)、白化壞死症(white syndrome, WS)、扁蟲寄生(flatworm infestation, Fl)和色素反應(pigmentation response, PR)。調查結果發現珊瑚疾病總體盛行率最高的地方為東北角(7.28%±3.20%),墾丁(8.62%±5.48%),綠島(8.03%±3.85%)和蘭嶼(7.83%±2.93%),東部海岸略低(5.30%±3.60%),澎湖南方四島則是最低(2.15%±2.65%),且各海域呈現特殊的疾病盛行情形(disease distribution pattern)。同時也發現珊瑚疾病有特定的好發宿主,主要影響五個科別(family)珊瑚,其中Acroporidae和Poritidae珊瑚對疾病的敏感性最高。另外石珊瑚覆蓋率和群聚多樣性也可能會影響疾病分佈,本研究發現較高的石珊瑚覆蓋率可能會提高珊瑚受病原感染的機率,而較高的群聚多樣性則可能提供一些保護效果避免珊瑚受到感染。本研究還試圖評估珊瑚群聚中的受壓程度,最終發現受壓程度越高,色素反應的盛行率可能越高(反映珊瑚組織中的發炎反應),但在群聚中出現的疾病數量則可能較少。從這些結果可以看出珊瑚疾病的盛行情形受到若干因素影響,如珊瑚群聚組成、石珊瑚覆蓋率和群聚多樣性、疾病的宿主偏好性,以及珊瑚群聚承受的壓力條件和受壓程度。最終發展出一個假定模型來解釋珊瑚群聚和疾病還有環境之間的互動關係。在正常狀態下,每個地區由於其地理和水體特徵不同而有獨特的珊瑚群聚組成,因為疾病有其宿主偏好性的關係,珊瑚群聚組成會在一定程度影響疾病盛行情形。當季節變化時,一些環境因素隨之發生變化。珊瑚群聚為了適應環境而必須進行調整,可能會從原本的穩定狀態進行相位偏移(phase shift)到另一個穩定狀態,在環境因素恢復時珊瑚群聚也可能回復到原本的穩定狀態。但若環境中尚有其它壓力源存在,珊瑚群聚可能會轉向其他的穩定狀態,並且需要耗費較多能量才能回復到原本的穩定狀態。當珊瑚群聚受到壓力的程度不斷升高,可能會導致一些本該長期穩定的參數發生擾動,最終耗盡珊瑚能量,造成某些珊瑚品種消失,也可能有新的品種加入,至此珊瑚群聚組成結構發生改變,進入一個新的穩定狀態,此情況稱為形勢偏移(state shift),雖然也是穩定的,但由於對應的長期環境參數不同,因此相關的所有動態都會不同於原本的珊瑚群聚。
Coral diseases have caused a substantial decline in reef-building corals’ biodiversity and abundance. It can cause progressive tissue loss and/or affect coral growth, reproductive capacity, recruitment, species diversity and the abundance of reef-associated organisms. While coral disease research has increased over the last four decades, very little is known about coral diseases in Taiwan. This study is the first one aims to know the status of coral diseases in Taiwan. We applied belt-transects at multiple localities in Northeast coast, East Coast, Kenting, Green Island, Orchid Island, and Southern Islands from April to August in 2018 for the spatial survey, and conducted another cross-seasonal survey from October to November in 2018 in Northeast coast, Kenting, and Green Island. Total applied 31 transects, surveyed 3840m2 area and examined 20709 coral colonies. During the surveys, we identified 9 coral diseases, including black band disease (BBD), BBD-like syndrome (BBD-like), other cyanobacteria syndrome (CY), skeletal eroding band (SEB), ulcerative white spots (UWS), growth anomalies (GAs), white syndrome (WS), flatworm infestation (Fl), and pigmentation response (PR). The highest overall disease prevalence presented in Northeast coast (7.28%±3.20%), Kenting (8.62%±5.48%), Green Island (8.03%±3.85%), and Orchid Island (7.83%±2.93%). A little bit lower on the East coast (5.30%±3.60%). The Southern Islands was the lowest (2.15%±2.65%). And each survey site had a particular disease distribution pattern. We also found that coral diseases have their own preferred host and mainly affect 5 coral families, Acroporidae and Poritidae corals are especially sensitive to diseases. Coral coverage and diversity in the community also play a role in disease distribution. Higher coral coverage may accelerate the pathogen infection while the diversified community may provide some protection from the infection. This study also tried to evaluate the stress level in the coral community. It ends up finding the higher the stress level, the higher the PR prevalence which reflects inflammation in coral tissue, but the number of coral diseases can be lesser in the certain community. These findings led to the conclusion that coral disease distribution can be affected by several factors such as coral community composition, coral coverage and diversity, disease-host preference and the stressed condition in the coral community. Finally, we developed a new putative model to explain the interaction between the coral community, disease, and the environment. Under normal status, each locality hosts a certain coral community because of its geographical and oceanographic characteristics, and the coral community will influence the disease distribution pattern. When the season changes, some environmental variables also shift. The coral community may need to adapt itself to the habitat by phase-shifting from one stable state to another alternative stable state, and it may able to shift back to the original stable state when the variables back to the normal level. If there are some stressors present, the coral community may shift to one another alternative stable state and need to spend more energy to shift back to the original stable state. If the stress level in the coral community keeps leveling up, it may result in some long-term parameter perturbations and ends up in state shift, meaning the community composition is changed. The community shifts to another state, which is also stable but, because it corresponds to different parameter values, the associated dynamics are different.
URI: http://ethesys.lib.ntou.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=G0010634006.id
http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/53575
Appears in Collections:[海洋生物研究所] 博碩士論文

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