|Abstract: || 魚菜共生系統係一整合水生動物與能夠水生之植物一起的生態系統。當動植物之間營養供求的搭配得宜，不但能省水、省能源、可有效利用空間，而且能充分的利用營養，減少對外部的污染，再若生產時可產生利潤、能夠商業化，則魚菜共生應可成就為一永續的產業。 影響魚菜共生生產的因子甚多，本研究係考量以下較關鍵的因子：(1)魚的種類：魚菜共生研究或實務最常被使用的吳郭魚(tilapia)與耐氨毒與低溶氧的泥鰍(Loach)；(2)餵食策略：餵食頻率能影響魚類的攝餌量、殘餌量、餌料效率、與最終的魚類代謝物與排泄物量及水質。(3)光照：不同的光週期與光照密度；以及(4)不同光照需求的經濟植物：強光照需求的空心菜(Water spinach, Ipomoea aquatica)，韭菜(Chinese chive, Allium tuberosum) 以及弱光照需求的山蘇(Nest fern, Asplenium nidus)；而組合成三個實驗：(一)餵食頻率與光照週期對吳郭魚–空心菜浮筏式魚菜共生系統水質與作物生產的影響、(二) 光密度與光週期對於泥鰍與韭菜–浮筏式魚菜共生系統的水質及作物產量的影響、及(三)光密度與光週期對於泥鰍–山蘇浮筏式魚菜共生系統的水質與作物生產的影響。 實驗一在於探討餵食頻率與光照週期對吳郭魚(Red tilapia, Oreochromis sp.)與空心菜(Water spinach, Ipomoea aquatica)浮筏式魚菜共生系統水質與作物生產的影響。以空心菜2階的光照週期(一日12或24小時)乘以紅色吳郭魚3階的餵食頻率(每日投餵2次、4次與6次)形成6種複因子組合處理。每個水槽(實驗單位)都是一個有魚與浮筏承載植物的完整魚菜共生系統。實驗進行四週不換水，水的損失率為每日0.12%，原因為植物葉片蒸散作用與水槽中在餵飼區的水的蒸發。水質一直保持在安全且穩定狀態，沒有魚死亡。魚與植物的總重量的增加各為43.9%與169.0%。光照24小時較12小時魚成長增加2.4%，植物成長增加12%而水中總氮量與總磷量也減少。較高的餵食頻率讓水質改善且穩定度提高，也讓魚與植物的成長相對的增加達4.9%與11%。 實驗二在於探討光密度與光週期對於泥鰍(Loach, Misgurnus anguillicandatus)與韭菜(Chinese chive, Allium tuberosum) 浮筏式魚菜共生系統水質與作物生產的影響。以與實驗二相同的3階光密度(22, 59, 109 μmol sec-1m-2的T5螢光燈)× 2階的較高光週期(一日16或24小時)形成6種複因子組合處理。實驗單位的設置與實驗一相同。4週的生產期間，無換水，水的損失率為每日0.11%。水的損失的原因與實驗一相同。水質保持得安全且穩定，無泥鰍死亡。整體的增重，泥鰍為50.0%、韭菜為161.0%。高的光密度對於泥鰍與韭菜的成長及水質的改善都是有利的，同時減緩水中氮及磷的累積，因而可降低生物需氧量及化學需氧量以及緩和酸鹼度的下降。兩光週期，對於泥鰍與韭菜的成長及水質的穩定沒有差異，因此建議採用16小時的光照來節約電力成本。 實驗三在於探討光密度與光週期對於泥鰍與山蘇(Nest fern, Asplenium nidus) 浮筏式魚菜共生系統水質與作物生產的影響。以光合光量子通量密度(photosynthetic photon flux density, PPFD)為基準的3階光密度(22, 59, 109 μmol sec-1m-2的T5螢光燈) × 2階的較低光週期(一日3或6小時)形成的6種複因子組合處理。實驗單位的設置與實驗一相同。12週的生產期間，無換水，水的損失率為每日0.11%。水的損失的原因與實驗一相同。無泥鰍死亡。整體的增重，泥鰍為124.5%、山蘇為167.5%。高的光密度及長的光週期對於泥鰍與山蘇的成長及水質的改善都是有利的，同時減緩氮及磷的累積，因而降低生物需氧量及化學需氧量以及緩和酸鹼度的下降。以較長的生長期來養出較大的泥鰍及較高的山蘇產量是可行的，也可產生較大的利潤。|
Aquaponic system is an ecological system which integrates the inhabitation of aquatic animals together with plants adapted to aquatic environment. While between animals and plants their metabolites can meet the demand of both, the system can not only save water and energy but also use the nutrients efficiently, consequently reduces external pollution. Moreover, when the system is for commercial production and generates profit, it should be able to become a sustainable industry. Numerous factors can affect aquaponics production and the present study considers those key factors, such as: (1) fish species: red tilapia, Oreochromis sp. which has been used mostly in aquaponic studies or industry and loach, Misgurnus anguillicandatus; (2) Feeding strategy: feeding frequency can affect the amount of fish feed, the amount of residual bait, the efficiency of the bait, and the final fish metabolites and excrement and water quality; (3) illumination: various photoperiod and photosynthetic photon flux density (PPDF); and (4) various illumination required economic plants: high required ones: water spinach, and Chinese chive, Allium tuberosum and low required one: nest fern, Asplenium nidus; and formulate three experiments: (1) Effects of feeding frequency and photoperiod on water quality and crop production in a tilapia -water spinach raft aquaponics system, (2) Effects of PPDF and photoperiod on water quality and crop production in a loach – Chinese chive raft aquaponics system, and (3) Effects of PPDF and photoperiod on water quality and crop production in a loach - nest fern raft aquaponics system. In Experiment (1) a factorial arrangement of 6 treatments, 2 photoperiods for water spinach (12-h or 24-h light per day) X 3 feeding frequencies for red tilapia (an equal daily ration evenly fed 6, 4 or 2 times at 4-h, 6-h or 12-h interval, respectively) were used. Each tank was an aquaponics system containing fish and raft-supporting plant. Water loss in 4 weeks was 0.12% daily, due to leaf transpiration mainly and evaporation in the feeding area. Water quality remained safe and stable. No fish died. Overall average weight gain was 43.9% for fish and 169.0% for plant. 24-h light resulted in 2.4% higher fish growth, 12% higher plant growth and lower accumulation of all nitrogen and phosphate species in water than 12-h light. Increased feeding frequency favored stable and good water quality and fastened fish growth and plant growth by as much as 4.9% and 11%, respectively. In Experiment (2) a factorial arrangement of 6 treatments, 3 light intensities in PPDF (22, 59, 109μmol/sec/m2 with T5 tube) X 2 long photoperiods (16-h or 24-h light per day) were used in loach-Chinese chive raft aquaponics system. Each tank was an aquaponics system as Experiment (1). Water loss was 0.11% daily in 4 weeks, due to reasons as Experiment (1). Water quality remained safe and stable. No fish died. Overall average weight gain was 50.0% for fish and 161.0% for plant. High light intensity favored plant growth and improved water quality, such as lessened the accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients in water, consequently, lowered BOD and COD and slowed down alkalinity decline. Photoperiod had no effect on growth of both animal and plant and water quality stability, consequently, 16-h photoperiod was recommended for electricity saving. In Experiment (3) a factorial arrangement of 6 treatments, 3 light intensities in PPDF (22, 59, 109 μmol sec-1 m-2 with T5 tube) X 2 short photoperiods (3-h or 6-h light per day) were used in loach-nest fern raft aquaponics system. Each tank was an aquaponics system as Experiment (1). Water loss was 0.11% daily in 12 weeks' production period, due to reasons as Experiment (1). Water quality remained safe and stable. No fish died. Overall average weight gain was 124.5% for fish and 167.5% for plant. High light intensity and long photoperiod favored both plant and fish growth and improved water quality, such as lessened the accumulation of nitrogen and phosphorus nutrients in water, consequently, lowered BOD and COD and slowed down pH decline. This raft aquaponics system was demonstrated effective in water saving, nutrient conservation and fish and plant production. Longer culture period is feasible for bigger loach and higher fern production, consequently, more lucrative profit in this aquaponics system.