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Title: 台灣養殖文蛤的遺傳多樣性及種原鑑定
Genetic diversity and species identification of cultured hard clam (Genus Meretrix) in Taiwan
Authors: Chuang, Chao-Hsi
莊朝喜
Contributors: NTOU:Department of Aquaculture
國立臺灣海洋大學:水產養殖學系
Keywords: COI;遺傳多樣性;Meretrix;隱蔽種;近親交配
COI;genetic diversity;Meretrix;cryptic species;inbreeding
Date: 2019
Issue Date: 2020-07-03T08:29:51Z
Abstract: 文蛤是台灣重要的養殖二枚貝,但近年來常發生大量死亡現象,推測可能有近親交配的情況。此外,台灣文蛤一直被認為是日本人於日治時代自日本引種的外來物種,屬於日本文蛤(Meretrix lusoria)。因此本研究以外部形態及mtDNA COI序列調查來自台灣養殖與野生及國外的文蛤樣本,希望釐清台灣文蛤的種原與分類問題,並探討養殖文蛤是否有近親交配的現象。本研究一共自使用:(1)台灣養殖樣本12批;(2)台灣野生樣本3批(3)國外野生樣本14批(中國、菲律賓、泰國、馬來西亞、印尼)。本研究發現:(1)台灣文蛤(Meretrix sp.)確實存在局部的近親交配現象,其遺傳多樣性已處於較低的水準。但整個台灣文蛤產業仍具有高度的遺傳多樣性。(2)台灣文蛤(Meretrix sp.)並非Meretrix lusoria(日本文蛤),為台灣的原生種,且其分布北起中國長江口、南至印尼,應視為一新種。(3)文蛤屬物種具有多個隱蔽種現象,需進一步釐清。包括東南亞地區的Meretrix lyrata應存在至少兩個種、亞洲太平洋地區與印度洋的Meretrix meretrix應存在至少兩個種。(4)Meretrix tigris(虎斑文蛤)應僅為一特殊殼紋類群,仍屬於台灣文蛤(Meretrix sp.)。
Hard clam (Genus Meretrix) is an important aquaculture bivalve in Taiwan. However, in recent years, a large number of mortality events often occur, and it is speculated that caused by inbreeding. Also, Taiwanese hard clam has long been regarded as an alien species, introduced from Japan by the Japanese during the Japanese colonial period, belonging to the Meretrix lusoria. Therefore, to clarify the taxonomy state and genetic diversity (inbreeding) of Taiwanese hard clam, cultured and wild samples were investigated by using morphology and mtDNA COI sequences. The samples included: (1) cultured samples from 12 locations in Taiwan; (2) wild samples from 3 locations in Taiwan; (3) wild samples from 14 locations in foreign (China, Philippines, Thailand, Malaysia, Indonesia). This study found that: (1) Taiwanese hard clam (Meretrix sp.) show inbreeding depression in some locations. However, the whole Taiwanese hard clam still has a high level of genetic diversity. (2) Taiwanese hard clam (Meretrix sp.) is not Meretrix lusoria (Japanese hard clam), it is a native species of Taiwan, and it should be regarded as a new species distributed from the Yangtze River estuary in China to Indonesia in the south. (3) The species of the genus Meretrix have multiple cryptic species and need to be further clarified. For example, Meretrix lyrata (Southeast Asia), should have at least two species; Meretrix meretrix (the Asia Pacific and the Indian Ocean) should be at least two species. (4) Meretrix tigris (Tiger hard clam) should be only a special pattern type, belonging to the Taiwanese hard clam (Meretrix sp.)
URI: http://ethesys.lib.ntou.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=G0010533031.id
http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/53503
Appears in Collections:[水產養殖學系] 博碩士論文

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