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Primary Study on Using Drones for Ship Emission Monitoring
|Contributors: ||NTOU:Department of Marine Engineering|
|Issue Date: ||2020-07-02T08:20:57Z
|Abstract: ||全球船舶大氣排放持續增長，迫使國際海事組織(International Maritime Organization, IMO)與歐盟(European Union, EU)頒布一些限制性海事法令來監管船舶排放，以減少對環境造成的影響。最早防止船舶污染國際公約(International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships, MARPOL)附則六(Annex VI)，限制船舶的硫氧化物(SO_X)、氮氧化物(NO_X)排放，但對於監測方式始終無明確規定。直到2013年，EU提出航運溫室氣體(Greenhouse Gases, GHGs)排放監控、報告、驗證(Measuring Reporting Verification, MRV)法規，規定航行至EU港口商船須自我監測二氧化碳(CO_2)排放，並計算運轉時的燃料消耗、排放等相關訊息，以形成區域性減碳目標，並有效的管理船舶所排放的GHGs。面對國際法規趨勢，往後船舶都必須自行選擇監測排氣方式。在MRV法規的監測環節中提供了四種監測方式，但由於昂貴設備成本和操作上的困難等因素，造成許多船東難以接受。本研究探討以既有技術，利用具高機動性的無人機搭載氣體分析儀，飛行至船舶煙囪附近進行排氣實測，並和計算及文獻的排放估測值作比較，以初步驗證此技術是否可靠。本實驗所得結果顯示，排放監測無人機有其應用潛力，但仍賴進一步克服諸多技術問題。這些問題包括：無人機旋翼產生的下沖氣流(downwash)會分散周圍的氣體物質，造成量測時的誤差，以及量測時的環境影響等。如何針對這些問題加以改善，是無人機能否在短期未來實際應用於船舶排氣監測的關鍵。|
The growth of global atmospheric emissions from ships forced IMO and the EU to issue restrictive maritime laws to regulate ship emissions. The earlier MARPOL convention is designed to limit mainly, the SO_X and NO_X pollutant emissions of ships without clear regulation on the method and procedure for emission monitoring. In 2013, the EU proposed the MRV regulations for shipping GHGs. Merchant ships navigating to EU port merchants must self-monitor CO_2 emissions, calculate fuel consumption and emission during operation, in order to effectively manage GHGs emissions from ships and therefore meet regional carbon reduction targets. In the face of international regulations, ships in the future must choose method for exhaust monitoring. Four monitoring methods are provided in the monitoring section of the MRV regulations, but many ship owners are burdened by factors such as cost of expensive equipment and ease of operation. This study explored the possibility of using existing technology to incorporate a highly maneuverable drone with gas analyzers. It is flied to ship's exhaust plume for actual exhaust gas monitoring. The test data are compared with estimate data obtained from calculations and literature to verify the reliability. The results obtained in this experiment show that there is potential of applying a drone for monitoring emission from ships. Many technical problems need to be overcome. For example, the effect of air stream generated by the drone rotor can disperse the surrounding gas substances, causing errors in measurement. In addition, the micro-environment can also influence the measurements. Solving these problems through further study will be the key to the application of drone on ship emission monitoring in the near future.
|Appears in Collections:||[輪機工程學系] 博碩士論文|
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