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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/53369

Title: 船舶所有人選擇海難救助契約決策因素之研究
A Study on the Key Factors in Selecting Salvage Contract from the Perspective of Shipowner
Authors: Chiu, Chung-Sheng
邱重盛
Contributors: NTOU:Department of Marine Engineering
國立臺灣海洋大學:輪機工程學系
Keywords: 海難救助;勞依茲標準救助契約;乳酪理論;灰色關聯性分析;決策矩陣
Salvage;LOF;Swiss Cheese Theory;Grey Relational Analysis;Decision Matrix
Date: 2019
Issue Date: 2020-07-02T08:20:51Z
Abstract: 有關海難救助的研究有很多類型,舉凡海難救助的定義、法律性質、救助報酬、勞依茲標準救助契約(LOF)及救助法規等議題。然而隨著海商法律、救助法規的修正、救助契約不斷地更新,特別補償金P & I條款(SCOPIC)的推出及調整,多數論文都已經過時,已不能滿足現行的航運實務運作。而在救助契約方面,除了有探討上述重要議題外,其內容並沒實際討論到影響船舶所有人選擇海難救助契約之決策因素。 本研究乃藉由對20個不同類型之海難救助實際案例進行研析,在這些海事案例中整理出會影響到船舶所有人在決策過程中的相關考量因素。首先利用乳酪理論(Swiss Cheese Theory)將上述20個海事案例所整理出的考量因素,依海難救助中四個重要角色分成四道防線,分別為船員(自救能力)、船舶所有人(急迫性)、保險人(承保風險)與救助人(難度別)。依乳酪理論的原理,只要其中一道防線被移動,使得乳酪上的空洞無法連成一線,即可以避免選用不適當的海難救助契約。 再者,海難救助契約實務上無法事先預定,具有不確定性,而有灰色信息的特性,適合使用灰色關聯性分析法(Grey Relational Analysis)分析,故本研究同時利用灰色關聯性分析法來驗證前述乳酪理論所得出之決策因素。經由灰色關聯性分析法量化分析的結果,船員的自救能力、船舶所有人的急迫性及救助人的難度別,是船舶所有人選擇海難救助契約時最重要的三個決策因素,而這三個決策因素亦與上述乳酪理論的分析結果一致。 本研究參酌風險矩陣(Risk Matrix)的概念,以風險評估的理論基礎,將上述三個決策因素與不同的海難事故情況引入,建構出決策矩陣(Decision Matrix)。另外,用4個不同的海事案例予以驗證,結果證明此決策矩陣是正確可行的。在決策過程中,有很多時候海難事故的狀況會隨著時間而驟然改變,例如天候因素、船員安全、船舶損傷程度,此時影響決策因素的因子也會改變。本研究利用戴明循環理論(Deming Cycle Theory)持續改善流程的原理,將影響決策行為的因子修正、持續改進,以提高決策的正確性。因此,倘若海難事故發生,需要即刻救援。船舶所有人可以利用此決策矩陣在有限的時間內作出及時性的決策,選擇適當的海難救助契約,同時亦可以減少不必要的海難救助成本。
There are many research papars discussing about salvage issue. For example, salvage defination, legal issue, salvage reward, LOF and salvage convention. However, many of them have been out of date because of the update/reform of maritime laws, international conventions, salvage contracts and SCOPIC. These articles can hardly meet the requirement of morden martine market. As to the salvage contract, there is no research papar studying about the key factors in selecting salvage contract and decision making. This study analyzes 20 marine salvage cases in order to find out the relevant factors when shipowner is making a decision. Swisss cheese theory is used to illustrate the factors (defences) according to the four key roles in the marine salvage. They are crew, shipowner, insurer and salvor. Accordingly, shipowner can avoid choosing an improper salvage contract if the defences are placed correctly. In practice, it is not usual when a salvage contract is pre-engaged. Salvage contract has the character of uncertainty and uncertainty meets the condition of grey relational analysis. Hence, this study utilizes grey relational analysis to verify the factors found in the swiss cheese theory. The research results of grey relational analysis are crew’s ability in self-relieving, shipowner’s judgement on the level of emergency and salvor’s evaluation on the degree of danger. These three key factors are the same as the ones found in the swiss cheese theory. Decision matrix, a concept of risk matrix, is also used to verify the decision making. The decision matrix is compoused by above mentioned three key factors and various different casualty types. We use another 4 marine salvage cases to veryify the decision matrix and the result is accurate and workable. Shipowner can take the advantage of Deming cycle theory when making a decision. If any condition changes, like weather, crew’s safety and damage to the vessel, shipowner can also adjust the factors, improve process and enchance the accuracy. By using this decision matrix, shipowner can make a proper and prompt decision in choosing salvage contract. This can let the salvage operation start immediately and avoid any unnecessary costs.
URI: http://ethesys.lib.ntou.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=G0020366003.id
http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/53369
Appears in Collections:[輪機工程學系] 博碩士論文

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