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题名: 我國現行僱用大陸漁船員管理制度之研究
作者: Lee, Hsin-Ya
李心雅
贡献者: NTOU:Department of Environmental Biology and Fisheries Science
國立臺灣海洋大學:環境生物與漁業科學學系
关键词: 大陸漁船員;漁業勞動力;管理制度;兩岸漁船船員勞務合作協議
Mainland fishing crew;Management system;The Cross-Strait Fishing Vessel Labor Cooperation Agreement;Fishery labor
日期: 2019
上传时间: 2020-07-02T07:40:27Z
摘要: 本研究旨在透過比較分析法,瞭解我國僱用大陸漁船員之政策沿革及當前的管理制度,並探討大陸漁船員管理在簽訂兩岸漁船員勞務合作協議前後之差異,以及目前漁船主及仲介機構認為有待解決之問題,最後根據研究結果,提出具體建議,提供有關單位參考,研究結果摘要如下: 一、我國目前僱用外來船員之來源有中國大陸、印尼、越南、菲律賓等四個國家。自開放大陸漁工以來,臺灣地區近海漁業僱用大陸漁船員平均人數自2004年的4,612人,到2005年最多曾達8,490人,到2010年協議生效前,近海大陸船員受僱人數約3千6百餘人,再降至目前的1千人左右,大陸漁船員來臺人數越來越下滑。 二、政府為解決漁業勞動力嚴重不足之問題,1991年先開放國外基地作業之遠洋漁船主僱用大陸漁船員;1993年配合「先海後陸、由遠而近」之引進陸勞政策,有條件同意漁船主得於領海12浬外僱用大陸漁船員;1995年公告漁船主得以在離岸12浬以外,境外僱用、境外作業、境外送返;1998年經報備登記事先許可,大陸漁船員可隨船進入12浬內劃定之錨泊區暫置;2001年試辦岸置處所;2003年根據多年之大陸漁船員管理經驗,發布規範更詳細之「臺灣地區漁船船主境外僱用及接駁安置大陸地區漁船船員許可及管理辦法」;2005年公告「未滿10噸漁船限制僱用大陸船員」之規定,接著於2009年底簽訂「海峽兩岸漁船船員勞務合作協議」,在此以前均為我單方面與時俱進之滾動式管理規範,但之後,就須再加入雙方共識協議之內容。 三、雙方簽訂協議前後,大陸漁船員管理上之差異為: (1)確立兩岸漁業交流單位。(2)規範更為完備。(3)明定各方須簽訂勞務契約。(4) 證件為大陸官方出具之有效文件。(5)明定船員接駁方式。(6)明定船員暫置方式。(7)充分保障勞資雙方權益。(8)確立雙方溝通協調機制。 四、現行大陸漁船員管理辦法係於兩岸簽訂漁船員勞務合作協議後,將其內容內國法化,並加入我國漁政機關多年之實務管理經驗所需調整之部分,綜合修正而成之新制度,有關大陸漁船員之管理一應俱全,相當完備。 五、第一線僱用之仲介業者與漁船主認為目前有待克服的問題為:(1) 因政治因素,雙方已逾10年未溝通對話,未能立即共同解決大陸漁船員人數減少及勞務合作問題。(2) 希望開放固定比率可僱用擔任幹部船員之規定。(3) 要求之紙本文件及相關資料仍很多,應簡化,以提高效率。 (4) 建議修改現行管理辦法,以符合實務需要。 六、根據本研究結果,建議漁政主管機關:(1)有計畫每年培育一定比例之漁業從業人之生力軍。(2)定期舉辦兩岸漁業勞務協商。(3)調整現行僱用大陸漁船員之管理制度。
The objective of this study is to realize the policy evolution of employing Mainland fishing crews and current management systems in Taiwan. Furthermore, this research analyzes the practices before and after the Cross-Strait Fishing Vessel Labor Cooperation Agreement and the problems that the fishing boat owners and the intermediary face. Finally, according to the research, the ways to solve the problems are drawn up to be a reference for competent authorities when revising laws and decrees making relevant policies. The key findings are as follows: 1.The foreign fishing crews in Taiwan are mainly from China, Indonesia Vietnam, and Philippine. Since the allowance of employment of Mainland fishing crews, the total number of the Mainland fishing crews in offshore fishery was 4,612 in 2004, and up to 8,490 in 2005, about 3,600 before the agreement, and is about 1,000 now. The total number is fewer and fewer. 2.In order to solve the shortage of fishing labor, the government agreed to open the employment of Mainland fishing crews on the fishing vessels operating at foreign fishing base. In 1993, the government agreed to open the Mainland fishing crews could work in waters beyond 12 nautical miles under the policy ”work offshore, rest in transit” and announced the regulation in 1995. In 1998, the Mainland fishing crews were allowed to enter the port with the fishing boat. In 2001, the Mainland fishing crews should be arranged at settling establishments. In 2003, the more detailed “Regulations of permitting and governing the delivery and settlement of Mainland China.” was released. In 2005, the government announced that the vessels less than 10 gross tonnages would not be allowed to employ Mainland fishing crews. In 2009, the labor agreement between Mainland China and Taiwan was signed. Our management system was changing along with the situation before the agreement, and it should include the content in the agreement after that. 3.The differences of the Mainland fishing crew management system between the system before the agreement and after the agreement are:(1) confirming the communication institution; (2) more detailed regulations; (3) stipulating the contracts among the parties; (4) valid certificate; (5) stipulating the way of transferring the fishing crew; (6) stipulating the way of settlement; (7) protecting the rights and interests between the fishing crew and the fishing boat owners; (8) ensuring the method of communication. 4.The current management system is based on “The Cross-Strait Fisheries Labor Cooperation Agreement” and adjusted according to the past management experience. It’s quite complete. 5.The problems from the fishing boat owners and the go-between agent:(1) the Mainland China and Taiwan hasn’t communicate with each other since the agreement started because of the political factors; (2) suggesting to allow the Mainland fishing crew to be the officers on board in a fixed ratio;(3) suggesting to simplify the document processing. 6.According to this study, the author suggest: (1) cultivating the marine professionals yearly;(2) holding fishery negotiation regularly; (3) adjusting the current management system.
URI: http://ethesys.lib.ntou.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=G0040647007.id
http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/53122
显示于类别:[環境生物與漁業科學學系] 博碩士論文

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