|Abstract: ||臺灣與中國大陸在兩岸分治後，臺灣之國際地位不斷受到打壓，面對中國大陸亦無法使用國家基本海域之義務與權利，兩岸間形成特殊之關係。於是臺灣透過「臺灣地區與大陸地區人民關係條例」作為處理兩岸法制問題的特別法，並在其中設立「限制水域」及「禁止水域」，用以管制大陸船舶進入臺灣海域。 澎湖海域除由澎湖地區當地漁民捕撈外，也因漁業資源相當豐富，及距離較近，甚至有部分臺灣漁船在海上與大陸漁船進行非法交易等因素，吸引大陸漁船越界捕魚，因而造成澎湖海域漁業資源逐年減少。有些大陸漁船甚至利用毒魚、電魚、炸魚及滾輪式拖網等不當的漁法捕撈，使澎湖沿近海海域生態環境遭受嚴重破壞，漁業資源快速枯竭。海巡機關雖持續進行驅離及扣留越界大陸漁船，但卻無法有效遏止大陸漁船侵入澎湖海域及非法捕魚的行為。 本研究依據海洋委員會艦隊分署澎湖海巡隊提供2015年至2018年大陸越界漁船於澎湖海域作業之相關數據，進行分析發現，大陸越界漁船主要聚集於七美、花嶼、目斗嶼，以及姑婆嶼一帶海域；而在季節方面，主要集中於每年夏季8月至10月；大陸越界漁船船名以「閩龍漁」、「閩東漁」、「閩獅漁」等以「閩」字頭為首居多，可見因地緣關係，以中國大陸「福建省」之漁船為最多；在水深及底質方面，大陸越界漁船多在水深20公尺至40公尺處，且底質為沙質處進行作業，雖未統計大陸漁船之作業方式，但推測大陸越界漁船應多為拖網漁船。 大陸漁船越界於澎湖海域，不僅對生態及漁業資源造成枯竭，同時也易與臺灣漁船產生漁事上的糾紛；大陸漁船行徑囂張，常使用利器或強硬方式逃避檢查，對勤務人員之人身安全造成影響；此外，目前中國大陸仍不排除以武力統一臺灣，若是有情報人員或武裝人員混雜其中，勢必對臺灣的海防造成重大威脅。 因此，本研究針對大陸漁船於澎湖海域越界捕魚的現況，運用「地理資訊系統」（Geographic Information System，GIS），將2015年至2018年大陸漁船越界澎湖海域之資料繪製成圖並加以分析；同時訪談澎湖海巡單位，了解面對大陸越界漁船第一線執勤人員之看法。整理並歸納出研究精華，最後研提對策，作為政府相關機關施政參考。|
After Taiwan and China became two divided goverments, Taiwan’s international status was constantly suppressed. Taiwan also can not use territorial sea, contiguous zone, and exclusive economic zone when facing China. Therefore, Taiwan constituted "Act Governing Relations between People of the Taiwan Area and Mainland Area", which is a special law dealing with China and Taiwan’s legal issues. And the law included "Restricted water" and "Prohibited water"that controling Chinese fishing vessels trespass to Taiwan sea area. Penghu sea area, which is rich in fishery resources and close to China. A part of Taiwanese fishing vessels transcated under the table with Chinese fishing vessels. Due to these factors given above, Chinese fishing vessels were attracted to trespass to fish in this area. As a result, the fishery resources in the area have been decreasing year by year. Some Chinese fishing vessels even use illegal fishing methods to catch fish that has caused severely damage to marine ecological environment of offshore water. Although Penghu Coast Patrol Corps has conducted the expelling and detaining Chinese fishing vessels for years , the continuing of the illegal actions has never been able to stop. Based on the data ,which Chinese fishing vessels trespassed into Penghu sea area from 2015 to 2018 that provided by Penghu Coast Patrol Corps. This study found something as follows. First, Chinese fishing vessels mainly gathered in the areas of Qimei, Huayu, Mudouyu, and Gupoyu. Next, Chinese fishing vessels mainly gathered on summer from August to October. Then, the names of Chinese fishing vessels take the initial word “閩”as most. And finally, Chinese fishing vessels mostly gathered between 20 to 40 meters deep of the water, and the substrate is sandy, so that we surmised Chinese fishing vessels mostly should be trawler vessels. Chinese fishing vessels were not only depleted the ecological and fishery resources, but also easily caused disputes with Taiwan fishing vessels while they trespassing in Penghu sea area. Chinese fishing vessels often use sharp weapons or strongly measure to escape investigation of Penghu Coast Patrol Corps. Besides, Chinese government still does not rule out the unification of Taiwan by force currently. If there are intelligence spies or armed agents mix into Chinese fishing vessels, it will cause a serious threat to Taiwan. Therefore, this study mainly discusses the current situation of Penghu sea area trespassed by Chinese fishing vessels. We mapped and analyzed the data of Chinese fishing vessels trespassed into Penghu sea area from 2015 to 2018 by using Geographic Information System (GIS). Meanwhile, we interviewed Penghu Coast Patrol Corps to get the opinions when they facing Chinese fishing vessels. After all, we would proposed countermeasures as a reference for government agencies.