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Title: 臺灣沿近海刺網漁業作業型態之時空分布特性
Spatial and temporal characteristic of fishing operations for gillnet fishery in the waters off Taiwan
Authors: Sung, Pei-Hsuan
宋佩軒
Contributors: NTOU:Institute of Marine Affairs and Resource Managemen
國立臺灣海洋大學:海洋事務與資源管理研究所
Keywords: 刺網漁業;集群分析;魚種組成;漁獲率;臺灣沿近海
gillnet fishery;cluster analysis;catch composition;catch rate;the waters off Taiwan
Date: 2018
Issue Date: 2020-01-20T06:07:59Z
Abstract: 刺網漁業為臺灣沿近海重要的小型漁業,2016年全臺刺網漁船數達8,979艘,漁獲量衰退到10,443公噸。沿近海漁民因海洋環境與物種多樣性而發展出各式型態之刺網漁業,增加統計與監控的困難度。本研究分析2011年1月至2016年12月間臺灣海域作業之刺網漁業港口查報記錄以及船位資料計1,009艘次,總計紀錄到334種魚種。結果顯示漁獲率之空間分布及漁獲組成有季節性及噸級別差異,第一季於屏東海域東側,第二季於基隆以北海域,第三季於北部淡水沿岸,第四季西北海域有較高值。累積漁獲量四季皆於西北沿岸有較高值,臺南沿岸地區有較高累積作業時數。漁筏及未滿二十噸動力漁船於東部海域有較高漁獲率,二十噸以上未滿一百噸動力漁船則於西北海域有較高值。以變異數分析漁船噸級別漁獲率後,分為小型船(漁筏及二十噸以下)與大型船(二十噸以上未滿一百噸),並根據漁獲物種組成以集群分析各分為5群,再以相似程度貢獻分析各群之主要物種,結果顯示小型船依目標物種分為黑䱛(Atrobucca nibe)、大棘大眼鯛(Priacanthus macracanthus)、白姑魚(Pennahia argentata)、鯔(Mugil cephalus)、雨傘旗魚(Istiophorus platypterus)等五群船隊。大型船則以鯔(Mugil cephalus)、康氏馬加鰆(Scomberomorus commerson)、黑皮旗魚(Makaira nigricans)、黑䱛(Atrobucca nibe)、杜氏鰤(Seriola dumerili)等五種魚種為目標物種。各群之漁船大小、漁獲率、卸魚港、季節性及目標魚種上的差異皆顯示沿近海刺網漁業的多樣性。小型船因作業範圍近且漁獲率低,建議以各群主要物種做為長期監測資源變動指標,並優先考慮年漁獲率下降物種,如鯔及雨傘旗魚。大型船因作業範圍廣且漁獲率高,建議參考航次比例高之新北市、臺南市作為優先管理縣市,以達到永續發展之目標。
Gillnet fisheries is an important small-scale fisheries in the coastal areas of Taiwan. In 2016, the number of gillnet fishing vessels was 8,979, and the catch decreased to 10,443 metric tons. Due to marine environmental variability and high species diversity, various types of gillnet fisheries have developed, which has increased the difficulty of statistics and monitoring. This study analyzed the landing data collected by port enumerators and fishing position recorded by Voyage data recorder (VDR) of gillnet fisheries between January 2011 and December 2016. There were 1,009 sample vessels and 334 species of fish were recorded. The results showed that the spatial distribution of catch rate and the composition of catches varied seasonally and by tonnage. The catch rate was higher in the first season in the surrounding waters of eastern Pingtung, the second season was in the north of Keelung water, the third season was in costal of Danshui, and the fourth quarter was in the northwestern waters. Regarding to cumulative catches have a higher value on the northwest coast in all seasons and higher operating hours on the coast of Tainan. For the vessels tonnage, the catch rate was higher in rafts and powered fishing crafts below 20 Tons in the eastern waters, and powered fishing crafts 20 below 100 Tons were higher in the northwestern waters. Fishing vessels were divided into small and large vessels after analysis of variance by catch rate of vessels tonnage. According to the species composition of the fish species, they were divided into 5 groups according to the cluster analysis. By similarity percentage analysis of the main species of each group, that small vessels are classified according to the target species: Atrobucca nibe, Priacanthus macracanthus, Pennahia argentata, Mugil cephalus and Istiophorus platypteru. Large vessels are classified according to the target species: Mugil cephalus, Scomberomorus commerson, Makaira nigricans, Atrobucca nibe, and Seriola dumerili. The differences in vessels size, catch rate, landing port, seasonal and target species of each group indicated the heterogeneity of costal and offshore gillnet fisheries and the difficulties in management and monitoring. Due to the close to the coast of operations and low catch rate of small vessels, it is suggested that management methods can be used as indicators for long-term monitoring of resource changes in the main species of each group, and priority will be given to species with reduced annual catch rates, such as Mugil cephalus and Istiophorus platypterus. Due to the wide operation range and high catch rate of large vessels, it is recommended to refer to New Taipei City and Tainan City, which have a high percentage of fishing trip, as their priority to manage counties and cities for fisheries management to ensure the sustainable purposes.
URI: http://ethesys.lib.ntou.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=G0010537008.id
http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/52839
Appears in Collections:[海洋事務與資源管理研究所] 博碩士論文

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