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Title: 水產品生態標章之回顧及其在臺灣發展前景
Review on Seafood Eco-labels and Its Development Prospects in Taiwan
Authors: Kok Ning Jin
Contributors: NTOU:Institute of Marine Affairs and Resource Managemen
Keywords: 水產品;生態標章;漁業管理;權益相關人;可信度
seafood;eco-label;fisheries management;stakeholders;credibility
Date: 2018
Issue Date: 2020-01-20T06:07:58Z
Abstract: 水產品生態標章(Seafood eco-label) 在全球發展已二十餘年,是鼓勵永續資源利用的新興機制,但發展過程帶來市場混淆及爭議,且未見臺灣發展顯著成果。本文回顧水產品生態標章在全球、亞洲和開發中國家的發展,並探討臺灣實施認證的潛力,以供漁業領域作爲永續策略參考。首先透過文獻分析蒐集23篇國際期刊發表之質性研究探討改善機制,其次利用立意抽樣,以半結構式深度面訪十位臺灣漁業領域專家,探討他們對生態標章的現況、挑戰和未來發展的見解;國外部分並透過網路問卷訪問十五位國外的生態標章組織、國際環保團體和學術單位。結果在文獻分析部分,對標章組織多建議應具有一致性及多面向基準、增加開發中國家機會及權益相關人參與;對於已開發國家,則應該強調政府角色、承認標章限制及參與者互動;至於開發中國家,需經濟效益平衡及所有權益相關人參與。第二部分之訪談結果,整理25名受訪者評分,以Marine Stewardship Council (MSC)水產品生態標章整體表現最佳。生態標章面對的挑戰為可信度不足、不當綠色行銷、混淆大衆和不平衡市場。多數專家建議改善供應鏈管理、採用國際基準、傳遞精準資訊和權益相關人合作。其中,國外專家對亞洲採用國外或自行創立標章各有立場,多數對創立標章抱支持態度。他們認爲亞洲接受國際標章認證的挑戰為缺乏數據,需提供相關協助及增進國際市場需求。至於臺灣倘要發展生態標章,主要挑戰為供應鏈瑕疵、缺乏誘因及高物種多樣性。臺灣專家認爲民間團體及生産者應負責推動且政府應從旁協助。本研究總結生態標章發展的三個重點乃—市場決心、標章基準全面性及權益相關人的重要性。MSC影響力大且持續強化,因此大型漁業可考慮申請其認證;Friend of the Sea (FOS)應開發亞洲市場,加深影響力;KRAV及MEL-Japan應強調國際認可;具多面向基準的Naturland應公開評估報告以鞏固可信度。臺灣内銷型漁業則建議從提升水產可追溯性及品質改善,逐步延伸至永續管理,以期創立國內標章;外銷型漁業則可參加Fishery Improvement Projects (FIP)開始,待進展成熟,可邁向正式生態標章認證。生態標章可反過來提升數據收集能力。過程需著重影響各組織領導者,並結合商業的供需互動方能提升永續水產品價值。
Seafood eco-labels have emerged in the past 20 years as a mechanism to encourage the use of sustainable marine resource. However, the development process has brought controversies, and significant results are lacking in Taiwan. By reviewing the development of eco-labels globally, in developing countries and Asia, and potential of implementing in Taiwan, key factors and guidance were established. Firstly, content analysis of 23 studies was employed to evaluate recommendations proposed in qualitative researches. Then, 10 experts were interviewed via purposive sampling with face-to-face semi-structured questionnaires. Fifteen foreign experts were sourced from eco-label organizations, NGOs and academics via online questionnaires. Results from content analysis proposed eco-labels to use consistent and inclusive criteria, open for developing countries and stakeholder engagement; developed countries need emphasize the role of government, expose label limitations and actor interaction; Developing countries need focuses of cost-benefit equilibrium and stakeholder engagement. From these interviews, the Marine Stewardship Council (MSC) eco-label performed the best. Major challenges facing eco-labels included credibility, greenwashing, confusion and an unbalanced market; thus, managing supply chains, adopting international criteria, delivering adequate information and cooperating were suggested. Foreign experts had varied perceptions on applying and establishing ecolabels in Asia. One major challenge of applying international labels in Asia is a lack of data; thus, assistance and increasing the international market demand are essential. A flawed supply chain, a lack of incentives and high species diversity were the main barriers to Taiwan developing an eco-label. Domestic experts suggested the NGOs and producers help promote ecolabels with government assistance. This study concluded that there are three core elements needed for eco-label development: market determination, inclusive criteria and the importance of stakeholders. MSC is influential and shown continuous improvement hence is considerable for large-scale fisheries; Friend of the Sea (FOS) should penetrate Asia to reinforce influences; KRAV and MEL-Japan need to stress on global recognition; Naturland can publicize assessment reports to foster credibility. Taiwan’s domestic fisheries may increase seafood traceability and quality before achieving the sustainability needed to establish a regional label; an export-oriented fishery can participate in Fishery Improvement Projects (FIP) before pursuing an eco-label once mature. In summary, eco-labels can improve data collection, but it is vital to influence leaders of organizations and to integrate the interaction of supply and demand in order to significantly increase the value of sustainable seafood.
URI: http://ethesys.lib.ntou.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=G0010437008.id
Appears in Collections:[海洋事務與資源管理研究所] 博碩士論文

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