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Title: 臺灣遠洋漁業永續發展之法制與實踐-以IUU為中心
A study upon the Legal Regime and Practice for the Sustainable Development of Taiwan’s Distant Fishery -Focussed upon the IUU
Authors: Zhang, Zi-Wei
Contributors: NTOU:Institute of the Law of the Sea
Keywords: 遠洋漁業;IUU漁撈行為;漁業執法;歐盟;觀察員
Taiwan Fisheries;IUU Fishing;Fisheries law enforcement;EU;Observer
Date: 2018
Issue Date: 2019-05-23T06:24:54Z
Abstract: 臺灣四面環海,漁業自古以來就是臺灣重要的糧食及經濟來源,但隨著全球人口激增、濫捕及環境污染日趨嚴重,漁業資源已逐漸枯竭,然漁撈業者為了經濟利益去作出不利漁業資源永續發展之行為,更加速漁業資源耗竭的速度。 隨著第二次世界大戰結束國際在和平的氛圍之下逐漸重視生態資源的養護,是以成立國際漁業管理組織的呼聲逐漸出現,嗣後隨著1982年聯合國海洋法公約的制定,公約中提到各國對生態資源養護的義務以及希望透過國際合作的目的來達到生態資源養護及漁業管理之目的。此一舉動讓許多國際漁業組織相繼成立制定許多漁業管理措施,而違反國際漁業管理組織或國家管理措施的漁撈行為,聯合國糧農組織稱其為「非法、未報告、未受規範漁撈行為」,國際上為了解決此問題陸續制定一些措施防制非法、未報告、未受規範漁撈行為,例如公海捕撈國應透過船籍管轄權與對人管轄權對本國漁船進行管理,港口國應基於港口管轄權對進港船舶實施一定措施,漁獲市場國應透過貿易制裁、禁運等方式消除非法、未報告、未受規範漁撈行為,各國並透過國際合作交換資訊、協議管理措施等方式進行漁業管理,來達到海洋生態永續發展之目的。 根據科學(Science)期刊在2018年2月22日的報導臺灣是僅次於中國大陸的世界第二大捕魚國,但臺灣漁船進行非法、未報告、未受規範漁撈行為的數量,也是世界著名,是以,歐洲聯盟於2015年對臺灣祭出黃牌警告,雖至2018年6月黃牌警告未升級至紅牌警告,但臺灣政府應努力做出政策改善此一問題,否則帶來之後果無法想像。鑑此,臺灣有關單位修正漁業三法、建立24小時漁業監控中心、增加觀察員人力等措施,但今3月歐盟官員來臺後仍未解除禁令,歐盟官員指出臺灣對於消除非法、未報告、未受規範漁撈行為還有許多問題,本文將檢討各項措施後提出本文之觀點,希冀臺灣遠洋漁業能達到永續發展。
Taiwan is surrounded by the sea. Fishery resources have been an important food and economic activity in Taiwan since ancient times. Population explosions, over-hunting and environmental pollution are becoming more serious, and fishery resources are gradually depleted. The fisherman has made unfavorable acts of unsustainable development of fishery resources for the sake of economic benefits, and has accelerated the depletion of fishery resources. The end of World War II, the international community gradually paid attention to the conservation of ecological resources under the atmosphere of peace, and the call for the establishment of an international fishery management organization gradually emerged. Development of the United Nations Convention on the Law of the Sea, Mentioning the obligations of countries to the conservation of ecological resources and the purpose of achieving ecological resource conservation and fisheries management through the purpose of international cooperation.Many international fisheries organizations have established many fisheries management measures. Anti-International Fishery Management Organization or national management measures fishing behavior, the UN Food and Agriculture Organization described it as "illegal, unreported, unregulated fishing " ,.In order to solve this problem, the international community has gradually formulated some measures to prevent illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing . For example, the fishing nations on the high seas should manage their fishing vessels through the jurisdiction of the ship and the jurisdiction over people. The port State shall implement certain measures for the inbound vessels based on the port jurisdiction. The catching market countries shall eliminate illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing practices through trade sanctions and embargoes. Countries shall exchange information and agreement management measures through international cooperation. The fishery management is carried out in the same way to achieve the goal of sustainable development of marine ecology. According to a report in the journal Science published on February 22, 2018, Taiwan is the second largest fishing country in the world after China. The number of illegal, unreported and unregulated fisheries fishing activities carried out by Taiwan’s fishing boats is also a world famous European Union issued a yellow card warning to Taiwan in 2015.The yellow card warning in June 2018 did not escalate to the red card warning. However, the Taiwan government should make efforts to improve the policy by this policy. Otherwise, the consequences cannot be imagined. Taiwan amended the Fisheries Law, the Oceanic Fisheries Law, Regulations on the Investment in or the Operation of Foreign Flag Fishing Vessels, established a 24-hour fishery monitoring center, increased observer manpower, etc. However, after the EU officials came to Taiwan in March this year, the ban has still not been lifted. EU officials pointed out that Taiwan still has many problems in eliminating illegal, unreported and unregulated fishing practices. This article will review the various measures and put forward the viewpoint of this article. Fisheries can achieve sustainable development.
URI: http://ethesys.lib.ntou.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=G0010574016.id
Appears in Collections:[海洋法律研究所] 博碩士論文

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