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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/52194

Title: 從二公約論我國死刑之執行
The Execution of Death Penalties Arising from the Two Human Rights Covenants in Taiwan
Authors: Lin,Sun-Ted
林三德
Contributors: NTOU:Institute of the Law of the Sea
國立臺灣海洋大學:海洋法律研究所
Keywords: 人權;死刑;生命權;刑罰制度;國際人權團體
human rights;death penalty;Right to life;Penalty System;The group of International Human Rights
Date: 2016
Issue Date: 2019-05-23T06:24:47Z
Abstract: 摘要 「世界人權宣言」、「公民與政治權利國際公約」、及「經濟、社會、文化權利國際公約」乃是國際社會中最重要的人權法典與政策,亦為國際人權法保障體系中最重要的法源。公約內容主要是在說明保障人類在基本公民、政治、經濟、社會、文化等各方面的人權保障。生命權是人權當中最重要亦為最根本的權利,若是生命權得不到有效的保障,其他任何的基本權則都不在具有意義。人權二公約現分別有一百五十餘國的締約簽署國,但並非每一締約簽署國都是廢除死刑的國家,有超過三分之二的國家已經在法律上或事實上廢止了死刑,但也有維持死刑的國家,現在為59國。執行死刑制度在國際間始終爭議不斷,「公民與政治國際公約」第六條則在規定有關生命權的保障,但並沒有相關廢除死刑的規定,僅在第六條第六款中表達國際間對廢除死刑的潮流與期待及第七條禁止殘酷或不人道刑罰。 死刑又稱生命刑,是我國刑罰制度當中最嚴重的刑罰,國家要剝奪犯罪人的生命權,需透過一套審慎而嚴謹的法律程序,一方面確保國家的刑罰權得以具體實現,一方面亦需保障犯罪人在法律上的權利不被剝奪。就死刑執行而言,我國係法治國家,依法行政為法治國家基本原則。就法院判決死刑定讞之案件,除有法律規定暫緩執行之事由外,仍須依法執行之。公民與政治權利國際公約雖明白揭示生命權為首要的人權,然並未否定在廢除死刑之前,依法執行死刑之合法性,僅要求各國慎重使用死刑。 人類生而自由平等,人性尊嚴應受尊重,人民享有之自由與權利應受憲法及法律保障,乃普世公認之價值,故現代民主憲政國家,莫不立憲保障人民基本自由與權利。我國政府宣示「人權立國」,對於死刑之立法政策,已深入檢討,惟我國人民於犯罪行為採應報主義之觀念仍然盛行,人權法治教育尚待努力推動,死刑制度或許暫時無法全面廢除,因此我國政府現階段係以相對死刑取代絕對死刑,以減少有關死刑之立法作為政策目標,並輔以各替代死刑之配套措施,期以階段化方式達成全面廢止死刑之理想。
Abstract “The Universal Declaration of Human Rights”,“The Citizenand the Political Rights International Joint Pledge”, and“TheEconomical, Social, and Cultural Right International Joint Pledge”is the most current and important international society human rights. International Human Rights Law Safeguard System is the most important basic law.The main protection from the The Human Rights include the citizens, politics, economy, society and the culture in various aspects.Right to Life is one of the most important and basic Human Right, if the Right to Life has no basic protection, other Right would lose their definition significantly. TheInternational Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights Adopted and opened for signature, ratification and accession by General have 150 countries to conclude a treaty the signature country, however, by no means every one concludes a treaty the signature country all abolishes the death penalty. 2/3 of the countries had already abolished the death penalty even in stated in the law, but there are still 50 countries that maintains the death penalties. But the death penalty system is still very controversial internationally,“Citizen and Political International Joint Pledge”sixth article states the protection of Right of Life, however, it states nothing about abolishing the death penalties. All countries that had sign the treaty must follow the sixth article sixth section to expresses the popularity and expectation of the death penalties, and seventh section to prohibit brutal or unhuman penalties. The death penalty also meant the capital punishment, which is one the most severe penalties in our country. If the country wants to take away the life of a criminal, they need to go through a very serious legal proceeding and process. On one hand the country can honor their criminal justices, on the other hand, they also protects the criminal not to take away from the law and protects the country’s society’s right.Carries out speaking of the death penalty , our country is the country under the rule of law, legally administration for country under the rule of law basic principle.Case of on the court decision death penalty, except has the legal rule to postpone beside the execution, still had to carry out it legally.Although the “International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights” states that the Right of Life is the main right, however, before abolishing the death penalties, all counties have to implement the death penalties carefully. Human are being born with free and equal human dignity,should be respected with freedom and rights. The people should enjoy the protection of the Constitution and the law, but recognized the universal value of the subject. According to the modern democratic constitutional rule of law, the constitutional guarantee everyone’s basic freedoms and rights.My Government declared as a "Human Rights Country", the legislative policy of the death penalty has been discussed in-depth, however, the people’s choice of death penalties toward the criminals are still being discussed and rule. The law of human rights education remains to be done to promote the death penalty system may temporarily not fully revoke. Therefore, the present system of government is to replace the absolute opposite of the death penalty, they chose to reduce the legislation on the death penalty as a policy objective. At the same time, there are several alternatives law and execution being used while the legislativeprocess the abolition of death penalties.
URI: http://ethesys.lib.ntou.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=G0040346008.id
http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/52194
Appears in Collections:[海洋法律研究所] 博碩士論文

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