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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/52187

Title: 國際公約在台灣國內法化之研究-以人權與海洋法制為中心
A Study upon the Nationalization of International Conventions into Taiwan's Domestic Legal Regime-Focussed on Human Rights and the Law of the Sea
Authors: Chen Ming-Tang
陳明堂
Contributors: NTOU:Institute of the Law of the Sea
國立臺灣海洋大學:海洋法律研究所
Keywords: 國內法化;公約;條約;施行法;人權;海洋;反貪腐;條約締結;專法;基本法
incorporated into domestic law;conventions, treaties;Implementation Act;anti-corruption;treaty-making;human rights;ocean;special law;basic law
Date: 2017
Issue Date: 2019-05-23T06:24:43Z
Abstract: 本論文以國際人權公約及海洋法公約在我國國內法化之機制為主要研究目標,兼論相關公約在國內法化的歷程,並進一步討論未來我國有關公約國內法化宜採行之方式,共分8章,茲將每章內容概要分述如後: 第一章:緒論,敘述本論文之研究動機、目的、方法及研究範圍等問題,針對論文主題相關之文獻資料加以蒐集整理,同時檢視以往專家學者對於相關議題之研究分析、評論、探討及對本論文之啟示,藉由分析歸納之結果,啟發本論文後續章節之安排及探討。 第二章:國際公約在一國內國法效力之理論基礎與國際法規範,主要探討《一元論》〈monism〉與《二元論》〈dualism〉,進一步討論國際法如何在國內法中被適用,而延伸至《變質論》〈transformation theory〉、或《特別採納論》〈specific adoption theory〉及《授權論》〈delegation theory〉等理論,以了解國際法與國內法之關係,以及國際公約在內國法之效力。另探討公約的概念,再論及國際法上《維也納條約法公約》與《國際組織條約法公約》之相關規定中,有關公約的締結程序、《維也納條約法公約》第6-25條規定、批准之內涵、加入及公約的生效等相關內容,以了解國際法規範有關國際公約批准加入後在內國法之效力。 第三章:從比較法觀點檢視主要國家國際公約國內法化制度,探討《國際習慣法》及《公約國際法》分別如何在德國、法國、日本、美國、英國適用的問題,主要論述《羅馬國際刑事法院規約、禁止酷刑和其他殘忍、不人道或有辱人格的待遇或處罰公約》、《禁止酷刑和其他殘忍、不人道或有辱人格的待遇或處罰公約附加議定書》及《公民與政治權利國際公約第二任擇議定書》等國際公約之國內法化之實踐,另兼論及歐盟國家就國際公約國內法化的作為。 第四章:我國對國際習慣法及公約法在內國法之法制規範,就法制面針對我國《憲法》有關條約締結之相關規定、司法院大法官解釋、《條約及協定處理準則》、《條約締結法》、相關法令及函釋如中央政治會議通過《民法總則篇》之立法原則、法務部函解釋、最高法院判決及《公約施行法》,以探討《國際習慣法》及《公約國際法》在我國國內法之效力及相關觀念之演變。 第五章:我國就公民與政治權利國際公約、經濟社會文化權利國際公約之國內法化之實踐,從人權的萌芽與發展、國際人權法典的建立、專門性國際人權公約的擴展、《兩公約》的蓬勃發展及其重要性為起頭,再論及我國近年來尋求與國際人權接軌的政策與作法。敘述我國原採「研擬制定人權專法」及「批准1967年簽署之兩公約」同時雙軌進行的方式推動公約國內法化;嗣行政院決議優先推動「兩公約批准案」,並研擬制定《兩公約施行法》。其次,就我國對《兩公約》簽署、批准及公布施行之歷程,以及《兩公約施行法》之研擬制定、施行過程、制定《兩公約施行法》之主要目的及其重要內容。繼而闡述《兩公約》及《兩公約施行法》之宣導及推動,如何落實《兩公約》統籌中央及地方各級機關辦理兩公約之宣導、培訓、教育及法令檢討等工作歷程,政府部門責由法務部自2009年起辦理推動落實《兩公約》之經過。另就委託學者專家所做《國際公約國內法化的實踐》專題研究報告,政府部門如何主動就專題研究報告研提對案建議,並提出「訂定國家行動計畫必要性」、「建立國家人權報告必要性」及「我國設立人權委員會義務」進行後續研究。最後,論述未來規劃與展望,提出如何持續推動法令之制(訂)定、修正或廢止及行政措施之改進,確實落實人權保障,同時積極研議推動設立專責的常設性國家人權機構,及相關重要作為。 第六章:其他重要國際公約國內法之國家實踐進展,以我國就《消除對婦女一切形式歧視公約》、《兒童權利公約》、《身心障礙者權利公約》、《聯合國反貪腐公約》、《中華民國領海及鄰接區法》、《中華民國專屬經濟海域及大陸礁層法》國內法化之國家實踐,先概述各《公約》意涵,再闡述各《公約施行法》之研擬制定、施行過程,制定《施行法》或國內法化之主要目的及重要內容並比較與《兩公約施行法》或《國際海洋法公約》之相應處及施行法所定國家報告之撰提情形。另就新制定之《水下文化資產保存法》與《保護水下文化遺產公約》做相應比較介紹,末就其他國際公約在國內之採用實踐,為法制探究。 第七章:探討我國獨特國際法律地位之國際公約國內法化發展策略和替代措施,分別論述加入公約、條約繼承、納入憲法、制定施行法、大法官解釋,制定專法及《條約締結法》施行後等國內法化之策略。並探究依公約原則制定專法及制定《公約施行法》之優缺點。 第八章:結論,就本文之研究論述提出研究心得與看法建議。 附錄:就近年來政府推動其他《國際公約國內法化推動案》之歷程、2001年《人權保障基本法草案》、2006年《人權法草案》等留下歷史見證供參考。 關鍵字:國內法化、公約、條約、施行法、人權、海洋、反貪腐、條約締結、專法、基本法
In this thesis, the main research objectives are the mechanism of incorporating International Human Rights Conventions and Convention on the Law of the Sea into domestic legal regime, the historical process of incorporating the relevant conventions into domestic law, and the way adopted for incorporating international conventions into Taiwan's domestic law in the future. This thesis is divided into eight chapters; the contents of each chapter are summarized as follows: Chapter one is a preface, including the research motives, the purpose, the method and the research scope of this thesis, the collection and collation of the reference related to the topic of the thesis. It also reviews the research, analysis, discussion of the relevant experts and scholars so as to enlighten the arrangement and discussion of the subsequent chapters of this thesis by analyzing the results of the analysis and induction. Chapter two introduces the theoretical basis and the norms of international law regarding the legal effect of international convention in the domestic law, and mainly explores the "monism" and "dualism". It also discusses how international law apply in domestic law and further elaborates the theories of "transformation theory", "specific adoption theory" and "delegation theory" to understand the relationship between international law and domestic law and the legal effect of international conventions in domestic law.Then, it expounds the concept of the Convention and describes the ratifications, accessions and the entry into force of the Convention under the relevant provisions of the "Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties" and "Vienna Convention on the Law of Treaties between States and International Organizations or between International Organizations" so as to understandthe legal effect of ratified or acceded international law in domestic law according to the norms of international law. Chapter three reviews the major countries' incorporation system of international conventions from the perspective of comparative law, and discusses how the international customary law and the international law of the Convention apply in Germany, France, Japan, the United States and the United Kingdom respectively.It mainly describes the implementation of incorporation of the Rome Statute of the International Criminal Court, the United Nations Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, the Optional Protocol to the Convention against Torture and Other Cruel, Inhuman or Degrading Treatment or Punishment, Second Optional Protocol to the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights, aiming at the abolition of the death penalty. It also elaborates EU countries' action for incorporation of the international conventions. The chapter four describes international customary laws and the convention laws in Taiwan's domestic legal norms. It focuses on the legal system aspect of the relevant provisions of the treaty making of the Constitution, interpretations of Grand Justice, Regulations Governing the Process of Treaties and Agreements, Treaty-Making Law, legislative principles of General Principles of Civil Law, the verdict of the Supreme Court and Convention Implementation Act so as to explore the legal effect of the " International customary law" and "Convention Law" in our domestic law and the evolution of related concepts. Chapter five discusses the implementation of incorporation of the International Covenant on Civil and Political Rights and the International Covenant on Economic, Social and Cultural Rights. It starts from the sprouting and development of human rights, the establishment of international human rights law, the expansion of specialized international human rights conventions, the vigorous development and its importance of the two covenants. Then it introduces that Taiwan seek to make its policy and action in accordance with international human rights standards in recent years. It also explains that Taiwan government originallyadopted a two-track approach to promote incorporating the two Covenants into domestic law,i.e. deliberated on enactment of a special human rights law and ratified the two conventions at the same time.However, the Executive Yuan decided to give priority to promote the ratification of two covenants and enact the Two Covenants Implementation Act.Secondly, it describes the historical process of signing, ratification and promulgation of the two covenants and the main purpose and important contents of the Two Covenants Implementation Act.Then it recounts the propaganda and promotion of the two Covenants and the Two Covenants Implementation Act, and the work history of coordinating the central and local authorities to handle the propaganda, training, education and legal review of the two Covenants. In 2009, the Ministry of Justicewas assigned to promote the implementation of the two covenants. They firstinvited the experts to do research about the implementation of incorporating the international conventions into domestic law.Next,they took the initiative to put forward a response report to the aforementioned research report and after that, they put forward follow-up studies of "the need to set the national action plan", "the necessity of establishment of national Human Rights Report "and" Establishment of Human Rights Committees ". Finally, this chapter discusses future planning and outlook, including how to continue to promote the enactment, amendment or abolishment of the decrees and the improvement of administrative measures, ensuring the implementation of human rights protection,deliberation on promoting the establishment of a dedicated permanent national human rights institutions, and related important actions. Chapter six introduces the progress in national implementation of incorporating other important international conventions into domestic law. With regard to the national practice of the Convention on the Elimination of All Forms of Discrimination against Women, the Convention on the Rights of the Child, the Convention on the Rights of Persons with Disabilities, the United Nations Convention against Corruption, Law on the Territorial Sea and the Contiguous Zone of the Republic of China, Law on the Exclusive Economic Zone and the Continental Shelf of the Republic of China, first, it expounds the meaning of each Convention.Next, it describes the process of enactment of the "Convention Implementation Act" ,and the main purpose and important content of the enactment of the "implementation Act" or incorporating into domestic law. It also compares related law with the "Two Covenants Implementation Act" or "the Convention on the Law of the Sea ", and even elaborates the compiling and submitting process of national reports under the Two Covenants Implementation Act. Finally, the newly enacted “Underwater Cultural Heritage Preservation Act " is in comparison with the "Convention on the Protection of Underwater Cultural Heritage" , and the legal system researches about the fulfilment ofincorporating other international conventions into domestic law are also explored. Chapter seven discusses the development strategies and alternative measures of incorporating international conventions into domestic law under our country's unique legal status. First, it discusses the strategies of acceding to the Convention, inheriting the treaty, incorporating into the constitution, the enactment of the implementation act, the interpretation of the Grand Justices, the enactment of the special law and the treaty-making law, respectively. Then it also analyzes the advantages and disadvantages regarding making a special law or formulating a Convention Implementation Act in accordance with the principles of the Convention. Chapter eight is the conclusion,which put forward the ideas and suggestions according to the research of this thesis. Appendix: Historical process of the Government promoting "the incorporating other international conventions into domestic law "in recent years, 2001 the draft "Basic Law on Human Rights Protection", 2006 the draft "Human Rights Law". Keywords: incorporated into domestic law, conventions, treaties, Implementation Act, anti-corruption, treaty-making, human rights, ocean, special law, basic law
URI: http://ethesys.lib.ntou.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=G0D96740001.id
http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/52187
Appears in Collections:[海洋法律研究所] 博碩士論文

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