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Title: 探究中華人民共和國加入鹿特丹規則之利與弊
Authors: Zhou, Gang
周罡
Contributors: NTOU:Institute of the Law of the Sea
國立臺灣海洋大學:海洋法律研究所
Keywords: 鹿特丹規則;利弊分析;海牙規則;威士比規則;漢堡規則
Rotterdam Rules;Analysis on advantage and disadvantage;Hague Rules;Visby Rules;Hamburg Rules
Date: 2017
Issue Date: 2019-05-23T06:24:36Z
Abstract: 現今,國際海上貨物運輸產業已成為世界各國之商貿往來的重要途徑,並積極推動著各國之國際貿易的快速發展;同時,該產業之發展不僅可幫助各國提升國際影響力,而且為加速各國與國際之快速接軌,奠定了良好的基礎。隨著社會的進步及世界各國之差異化的發展,使得世界各國在處理國際海上貨物運輸產業之實務工作中,均遇到了前所未有之問題與困難;為此,世界各國之政府就重新檢視國際海上貨物運輸產業之法律規範表現出濃厚興趣,以期望在國際上建立一個統一化的全新可行的法律規範,來適應現代化國際航運產業之發展。 隨著國際海上貨物之運輸模式的變化,1924年的海牙規則、1968年的威士比規則和1978年的漢堡規則已不能完全適應現代化貨物海上運輸的發展,為更好地促進國際間貿易之發展,2008年12月11日,在美國紐約舉辦的聯合國大會上正式通過了關於聯合國全程或部分海上國際貨物運輸合同公約,簡稱鹿特丹規則。該新規則旨在期望為統一國際海上貨物運輸之相關法律規則標準,並嘗試解決新時代背景下出現的多式聯運等的實務工作之問題,但新事物的出現通常會引發國際上較大的爭議,自鹿特丹規則正式通過以來,各國政府均為是否需加入而產生了激烈的討論。 對於世界上海運強國之一的中國來說,其卻從未加入過任何國際上己生效的海上貨物運輸之相關的公約,本研究旨在透過蒐集不同專家學者開展的相關研究,結合對比分析和實踐調查等研究方法,針對中國加入鹿特丹規則之利與弊議題,進行相關的探究與分析。本研究發現,雖鹿特丹規則條文內容比較複雜,中國之部分國內法案的辦案權限可能受到新規則一定的影響,且該規則之國際統一仍需較長的時間;然而,就中國國家追求利益之現況而言,鹿特丹規則對於推動「一帶一路」戰略的快速實施及協助中國之國際海運產業之發展,具有積極而深遠的影響,且鹿特丹規則中許多創新性的概念或規則,是值得中國海商法修訂時參考的;同時,從輔助中國之海商法修訂、新規則對於中國之國家利益影響、新規則平衡當事人之利益影響及新規則對於中國之國際地位的影響等角度來分析,中國加入鹿特丹規則具有一定的可行性。綜上所述,本研究認為中國加入鹿特丹規則之利更優於弊。 關鍵字:利弊分析、鹿特丹規則、海牙規則、威士比規則、漢堡規則
Nowadays, the international maritime transportation industry has become one of the most important ways to support the international trade, and this industry has also promoted the rapid development of the international trade. At the same time, it not only helps to enhance the international influence of each country, but also to laid a good foundation for accelerating a harmonious convergence in the world. Along with the progress of the society and the different development of countries around the world, people have encountered the unprecedented problems and difficulties when dealing with the practical international cargo transportation works. To this end, the governments around the world have shown a strong interest in re-examining the legal norms of the international maritime cargo transportation industry, which hopes to establish a unified new global legal rules at the international level to adapt to the development of the modern international shipping industry. With the changing of the pattern of the international cargo transportation in the global shipping market, the international legal norms, such as the "Hague Rules" published in 1924, the "Hague-Visby Rules" published in 1968 and the "Hamburg Rules" published in 1978, were no longer fully adapted to the development of modern global cargo transportation. In order to promote the development of the international trade around the world, the United Nations Convention, held in New York on December 11, 2008, formally adopted the "United Nations Convention on Contracts for the International Carriage of Goods Wholly or Partly by Sea", which is referred as the "Rotterdam Rules". The new legal norm aims to integrate the relevant legal regulations of the international cargo transportation rules and attempts to address the practical problems of the multimodal transportation in the context of a new era. However, the emergence of new things usually leads to an intense international controversy. Since the "Rotterdam Rules" has been formally adopted, there has presented a heated debate on whether or not to access the new global legal rules. among governments among different governments all around the world. For the People’s Republic of China (thereafter, short for " China "), which is one of the famous shipping countries in the word, it has never accessed any international legal rules or conventions that has been entered into force in the field of the international cargo transportation. This study hopes to explore and analyze the advantages and disadvantages when China accessing the Rotterdam Rules by collecting the relevant researches of different experts or scholars and combining the research methods such as the comparative analysis and practice investigation. In the current study, we find out that at least three possible defects of the Rotterdam Rules may exist to hinder China to access the new rules. First of all, the provisions of the Rotterdam Rules are complex. Secondly, the admissibility of the bills in China might be affected by the new global legal rules. At last, the reunification of this international rules may takes a long time. However, the Rotterdam Rules has a positive and far-reaching impact on the rapid implementation of both the "the Belt and Road" strategy of China and the international transportation industry, which is deeply involved the national interest of China. Meantime, many innovative concepts or regulations of the Rotterdam Rules are worthy to be view as the reference when revising the China Maritime Laws. Further, from the perspective of the revision of the China Maritime Laws, the influence of China’s national interests, parties’ interests and the international standing of the China affected by the new rules, we find out that there is a certain degree of feasibility for China to access the Rotterdam Rules. In conclusion, this study summarizes that the advantages is superior than the disadvantages when China accessing the Rotterdam Rules. Keywords: Analysis on advantage and disadvantage; Rotterdam Rules; Hague Rules; Visby Rules; Hamburg Rules.
URI: http://ethesys.lib.ntou.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=G0010474022.id
http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/52176
Appears in Collections:[海洋法律研究所] 博碩士論文

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