|Abstract: ||本研究旨在探討基隆市國小高年級學生使用智慧型手機的現況與人格特質，並且探討智慧型手機成癮傾向與人格特質之相關性與預測分析。以基隆市公立國小高年級學童隨機取樣進行調查，共取得946位學生樣本，有效問卷回收率為98.95%，採用問卷調查進行研究，根據研究目的自行發展「智慧型手機成癮傾向調查量表」以及「國小高年級學童人格特質量表」，輔以開放性問題進行質性資料之分析，智慧型手機成癮量表α值為.91，人格特質量表α值為.83，研究獲致下列結論： 一、基隆市國小高年級學童約七成擁有智慧型手機，以中度依賴為主 (一)基隆市國小高年級學童，擁有智慧型手機之人數佔68.4%。 (二)每天使用時間主要在一小時以內，以放學後為主要使用時段，主要使用功能為娛樂性及社交性，使用智慧型手機的好處是便利性以及多功能；壞處是過度使用會導致身體機能變差、浪費金錢以及影響學業成績。 (三)自我評估依賴智慧型手機的程度主要為中度依賴，依賴手機的因素有以下六大類型：娛樂性、工具性、社交性、便利性、依賴性以及身體傷害。 二、基隆市國小高年級學童智慧型手機成癮屬正常級 (一)手機成癮情形正常級佔67.1%；預警級佔12.4%；而危險級佔20.5%。 (二)智慧型手機成癮與年級、家長經濟收入、持有的手機類型、使用年資、每天平均使用時間有顯著差異性；顯示年級愈高、家長收入愈高、持有手機類型愈好(智慧型手機)、使用年資愈長、每天使用時間愈多者，手機成癮傾向愈明顯。 三、智慧型手機成癮傾向與神經質為正相關 (一)智慧型手機成癮與「神經質總分」為正相關，顯示情緒愈不穩定的人格特質其手機成癮的傾向愈嚴重。 (二)外向性、開放性、友善性以及謹慎性與智慧型手機成癮各向度為低度負相關；顯示外向性、開放性、謹慎性以及友善性人格特質愈高者，手機成癮傾向愈不明顯。 四、神經質對智慧型手機成癮傾向的預測力最高 (一)人格特質對智慧型手機成癮最具預測力之變項為「神經質」、「開放性」以及「謹慎性」。 (二)「神經質」人格對手機成癮的預測力最高，且具有正向預測力；顯示國小高年級學童的情緒愈不穩定，愈容易受人、事、物所影響以及因為生活壓力而感到難過者，其愈容易出現智慧型手機成癮的傾向。 研究者依據研究結果提出具體建議，一是對教育相關單位之建議，二是對於家長之建議，三是對高年級學童之建議，俾能有利於教育相關單位及家長參考之。|
The study aims to investigate the current situation of smartphone addiction of elementary school high-grade students and figure out the differences, correlations, and predictable effects when considering their personalities. 946 student participants were randomly selected from high-grade students at public elementary schools in Keelung City. The effective questionnaire responding rate is 98.95%. Two questionnaires, “Smartphone Addiction Tendency Inventory” and the “Personality quality chart for elementary school high-grade students,” were developed to evaluable the valuables which this study intended to investigate. At the same time, qualitative responses were also collected to understand the in-depth insight and context. 5 items are included in the scale of the “smartphone addiction tendency” with the .91 in Cronbach’s alpha, while 5 items are in the scale of the “personality quality chart” with .83 in Cronbach’s alpha. The study got the following conclusions 1. About 70% of high-grade students at elementary schools in Keelung City have smartphones, mainly based on moderate dependent. a. 68.4 % of high-grade students at elementary schools in Keelung City use smartphone. b. Most of these students use smartphone after school for the purpose of entertainment and using social platform. The benefits of using smartphone are convenient and versatile while the drawbacks are unhealthy to individual when using overtime, money-wasting, and bringing negative impact to academic performance. c. The degree of self-assessment dependence on smartphone is mainly moderately dependent. Six factors that make students depend on smartphone are entertainment, instrumentality, sociality, convenience, dependence, and physical harm. 2. Smartphone addiction cases for high-grade students at elementary schools in Keelung City are normal. a. The normal level of smartphone addiction occupied 67.1%,while the warning level accounted for 12.4%, while the danger level accounted for 20.5%. b. There are significant differences between smartphone addiction and grade, parents’ economic income, types of mobile phones student-owned, seniority of use, and average daily usage time. The higher the grade level, the higher the parents’ income, the better the smartphone type, the longer the seniority of use, and the more time spent each day, the more obvious the tendency of smartphone addiction. 3. Smartphone addiction is positively correlated to neuroticism. a. Smartphone addiction is positively correlated to neuroticism, indicating that the more unstable the personality traits, the more serious the tendency of smartphone addiction. b. Extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness are negatively correlated with the smartphone addiction, indicating that the higher the extroversion, openness, conscientiousness, and agreeableness of personality traits, the less obvious the tendency of smartphone addiction. 4. "Neuroticism" personality has the highest positive predictability for smartphone addiction. a. The most predictive variables of personality traits for smartphone addiction are " Neuroticism," " Openness," and " Conscientiousness." b. "Neuroticism" personality has the highest positive predictability for smartphone addiction. It is shown that the more emotionally unstable the students of elementary school high-grade are, the easier they are influenced by surrounding environments and feel sad to life pressures, which in turn, becoming more addictive to smartphone. This study presents an academic model which helps to figure out the relationship between smartphone addiction and personalities and demonstrate the demographic analysis to understand the current condition of smartphone addiction across high-grade students at elementary schools in Keelung City. The results give practical suggestions to education institute, parents, and student themselves respectively for addiction improvement.