IEEE Transactions on Geoscience and Remote Sensing
Abstract: An integral equation method (IEM) surface scattering model was examined in terms of its applicability to laboratory measurement and numerical simulations. New expressions for both single scattering and multiple scattering were obtained by rederiving the scattering coefficient to keep all the phase terms in the spectral representation of the Green's function. After quite intricate mathematical manipulations, a fairly compact form is obtained for the scattering coefficients. In addition, the Fresnel reflection coefficients used in the model were replaced by a transition function that takes surface roughness and permittivity into account. The results of comparisons with both the numerical simulations and measurements for the backscattering case indicate that the IEM is improved, becoming more accurate and practical to use.