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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/49465

Title: 多組疊標影像導引之夜間小船入港航行探討
Study of a small boat-based multi-leading mark visual guidance approaching maneuver in the night time
Authors: Lu, Cheng-Lun
Contributors: NTOU:Department of Communications Navigation and Control Engineering
Keywords: 疊標導航法;模糊自航器;影像處理;HSV色彩轉換;夜間視覺導引;光學擴散板
Leading mark guidance;Fuzzy autopilot;Image processing;HSV color space;Night vision-guidance;Optical Diffuser Plate
Date: 2015
Issue Date: 2018-08-22T07:02:01Z
Abstract: 本文以小型FRP船舶為實驗載具,利用影像處理技術結合模糊自航器,於夜間或低能見度狀況,藉由自主式燈源LED疊標導引之船舶自動入港航行。當船舶進入港口航道時,常受制於港口地形、水文特性之關係,為了有較佳應變能力,通常需藉由領港來完成引領船舶進出港任務。而領港係透過視覺的觀察方式及操縱經驗協助,導引船舶進出港。但在一般夜間或低能見度的情況,人眼視覺因視線較差容易導致辨識不易,容易增添船舶進港的風險。因此本研究擬以機械視覺代替或協助人眼視覺,並由架設於本船船艏的CCD(Charge Coupled Device)攝影機作為影像輸入的媒介,透過CCD擷取設置於岸上的LED燈板疊標影像,再經由LabView / Vision Builder AI軟體解算疊標影像質心,計算出視覺導航所需之航向角修正量及距離估測資訊,做為視覺影像導引之依據。但由於使用LED燈板作為夜間疊標導引之辨識物,在影像辨識的過程中容易受到LED燈發光角度的影響,使得疊標影像的色彩亮度不均,進而造成影像距離估測與實際距離產生相當的誤差量。在此提出使用光學擴散板,改良舊有的LED燈板疊標,使LED疊標影像顏色更為均勻。後續經由陸上靜態影像距離估測實驗,並比較使用改良式LED燈板疊標前後所得到的影像距離估測誤差,顯示使用改良式疊標可以降低影像估測距離誤差。最終於海洋大學小艇碼頭進行自動影像導引小船入港測試,在搭配影像處理技術及模糊自航器,確實可於夜間低能見度環境下將船舶導引航行於三組疊標定義的三段導航線所構成之Z字型航道上,順利完成自動入港航行。
This work is concerned with the design and experiment of signal processing and fuzzy logic-based small boat automatic harbour entering control system in low visibility or night time condition. Typically, human pilots are preferred over autopilots during harbour entering maneuver because of their better adaptive capability and sensitivity to visual cues needed in ship handling. However, human pilots’ability to obtain reliable visual information is significantly reduced in low visibility conditions. Hence, machine vision-based system is sought to help or replace human pilots during night time harbor entering maneuvers. Specifically, a CCD camera mounted on the bow of an FRP boat is used to acquire images of the LED leading marks that define the leading line during harbour entry. The center of gravity of the captured images is computed via Labview/vision builder AI to find the deviated heading angle and the distance from the boat to the leading marks needed for the fuzzy autopilot to steer the boat along the leading lines. The limited emission angle of the LED lights causes nonuniform LED color emission, which might reduce the identifiability of the LED leading marks, and results in certain distance estimation error; hence, poor track-keeping performance. An Optical Diffuser Plate is placed in front of the LED light marks to produce uniform LED color emission and the signal processing-based distance estimation becomes more reliable. Successful experiments carried out at the National Taiwan Ocean University small boat harbor indicate that the proposed signal processing and fuzzy logic-based autopilot system is capable of guiding the boat along Z shapes routes defined by LED light marks in the night time.
URI: http://ethesys.lib.ntou.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=G0010267041.id
Appears in Collections:[通訊與導航工程學系] 博碩士論文

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