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Title: 使用TCP協定實現低延遲即時視訊串流服務
Realizing Low Latency Real-Time Video Streaming Service with TCP
Authors: Huang, Ting-Chun
Contributors: NTOU:Department of Computer Science and Engineering
Keywords: Multiple-Flow TCP;即時影像串流;TCP;UDP;SCTP
Multiple-Flow TCP;Real-time video streaming;TCP;UDP;SCTP
Date: 2015
Issue Date: 2018-08-22T06:56:33Z
Abstract: 即時視訊串流大多以UDP進行資料的傳輸。和TCP比較起來,UDP沒有隊頭阻塞(head of line blocking)的問題,因此其效能不會因為封包遺失而大幅降低。然而UDP無法提供可靠的資料傳輸,此外,在某些網路設定下,如流量管制、防火牆或是NAT,UDP可能會有無法運作的情況。過去的研究曾利用其他的傳輸層協定如SCTP來解決上述的問題,但SCTP對於即時視訊串流的表現如何並不明確,且其普及率不高。在主流的桌面系統如Windows、Linux以及Mac以及行動裝置上的支援都不完整。因此對於Internet上的多媒體應用,如安全監控或是雲端遊戲等即時視訊串流的應用,並不適用。 有鑑於此,我們提出一個以TCP為基礎的即時視訊串流協定設計。我們提出了Multiple-Flow TCP模型,利用多個平行的TCP連線進行串流,除了可以利用TCP的可靠傳輸機制,也降低封包遺失對於整體傳輸效能造成的影響。我們的實測結果顯示,Multiple-Flow TCP有接近UDP的傳輸效能,同時也具備TCP和SCTP的好處。我們亦進行使用者研究,在相同的網路環境下,傳輸真實的即時視訊串流。透過影像品質分析,我們也證實Multiple-Flow TCP的設計可以有比TCP及SCTP更好的表現,即使是在較差的網路環境下依然可以有與UDP相當的延遲表現,而在影像品質分析的峰值信噪比上也有比UDP更好的表現。
Most real-time video streams are delivered using UDP. Compared against TCP, UDP does not have the head-of-line blocking effect, and therefore the performance does not drop dramatically due to packet losses. However, UDP does not offer a reliable packet delivery service, and it may not work in certain network setups including traffic shaping, firewall, and NAT. Researchers have attempted to solve the aforementioned problem using SCTP. However, the performance of SCTP on real-time video streaming is not clear, and it is not built-in for most off-the-shelf operating systems including both desktop and mobile OSes. As a result, it could not be a good choice for the demanding real-time multimedia streaming applications such as cloud gaming and video surveillance. Based on the observation, we proposed a real-time video streaming protocol design based on TCP, which is called multiple-flow TCP model. In this model, we leverage concurrent TCP flows to deliver multimedia streams. In addition to take the benefits of reliable packet delivery, the performance drop caused on packet losses can be mitigated and therefore improve the overall throughput. Our evaluation shows that the multiple-flow TCP model has a similar performance to UDP, and it offers the benefits of TCP and SCTP. We further conduct user studies to understand real user experiences regarding the performance of the proposed model. It also shows that the multiple-flow TCP model can perform better than TCP and SCTP in terms of real-timeliness and video quality.
Appears in Collections:[Department of Computer Science and Engineering] Dissertations and Theses

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