|Abstract: ||近年來，冷鏈的溫度管理受到重視，其失衡會對食品安全與品質造成嚴重之問題。在台灣，由於消費者對於低溫冷凍及冷藏食品需求日益增長，因此宅配到府的服務趨勢也逐漸提升，而本次研究目的為藉由冷藏食品之食品安全風險分析與冷凍食品品質變化，評估低溫冷凍及冷藏食品宅配到府所須之配送溫度，並對於白蝦中腸炎弧菌 （Vibrio parahaemolyticus） 進行定量微生物風險評估，且藉由動力學模型描述冷凍白蝦之品質變化。研究結果顯示，冷凍白蝦平均攝入致病性腸炎弧菌風險為 5.40 x 10-6 (情境一)。運輸過程中若將最高溫度 15℃ 降至 7℃ (情境二、三) ，其造成疾病風險分別可降低 5.32 x 10-6 與 4.99 x 10-6，此外在情境四、五、六、七中減少運輸過程中溫度之波動，其也能降低疾病發生之風險。藉由模擬結果顯示，情境七之溫度範圍為 7 ± 4℃，其具有較低及發生疾病風險，而冷凍蝦於運輸過程中因溫度失衡，造成其架售期損失了 90% (情境一)。情境二、三中發現降低最大溫度之波動，能減少架售期的損失，在情境四、五、六、七中發現，情境七因將溫度波動降低到 -18 ± 4℃，其對於冷凍蝦保存具有較好的品質，因此建議降低情境三之最大溫度，並將情境七溫度波動範圍縮小，以作為冷鏈中宅配到府之溫度控管一部份，而這些情境能降低冷藏蝦之疾病發生風險與延長冷凍蝦之保存架售期。此外，建議於冷鏈過程中，應建立完善的設備維持溫度、溫度波動控制、人員訓練與驗收時溫度測量，以確保蝦的安全與增加架售期。本次研究可作為食品業者溫度管理之參考，用以防止冷鏈失衡，降低食品安全之風險。|
Recently, temperature management in the cold chains has receive attention. Broken cold chain caused serious problem to food safety and quality. In Taiwan, an increasing need for chilled and frozen food home delivery services has been observed because of growing demand for those products by consumers. This study aimed to evaluate temperature requirements in home delivery, by considering food safety risks to chilled foods and quality change to frozen foods. While quantitative microbial risk assessments of Vibrio parahaemolyticus in shrimp was performed to assess the food safety, a kinetic model was employed to describe the quality change in frozen white shrimp. The results showed the mean probability risk of illness due to ingestion of pathogenic Vibrio parahaemolyticus in raw shrimp distributed under chilled temperature was estimated to be 5.40 × 10-6 (Scenario I). Reducing the maximum temperature fluctuation to 15°C and 7 °C during transportation (Scenario II and III) could reduce the probability risk of becoming ill to 5.32 × 10-6 and 4.99 × 10-6 in chilled shrimp, respectively. Moreover, reducing the range of temperature fluctuation during transportation in Scenario IV, V, VI, and VII also reduced the probability risk of illness. Through simulation, a lower probability risk of illness was yielded in Scenario VII with temperature range of 7 ± 4°C. In frozen shrimp, abusive temperature during transportation induced the percentage loss of remaining shelf life higher than 90% (Scenario I). Reducing maximum temperature fluctuation as mentioned in Scenario II and III were found has a little impact on predicted remaining shelf life. Among the Scenario IV, V, VI, and VII, a better preservation on frozen shrimp quality was obtained in Scenario VII by reducing the range of temperature fluctuation to -18 ± 4°C. Therefore, reducing the maximum temperature in Scenario III and narrowing the temperature range in Scenario VII are recommended as an integral part of temperature management control in home delivery cold chain, given fact that these scenarios could lower the probability risk of illness in chilled shrimp and preserve the remaining shelf life of frozen shrimp. Furthermore, a sufficient equipment to produce a required temperature, temperature control during distribution, personnel training, and simple measurement in post-harvest level are suggested for both chilled and frozen transportation chain to ensure the safety and increase the shelf life of shrimp. These findings could help food authorities determine temperature management policies to prevent broken cold chains and reduce food safety risks.