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Title: 臺灣鱒魚養殖生產經濟分析
Economic Analysis of Rainbow Trout(Oncorhyncus mykiss) Farming in Taiwan
Authors: Wu, Fong-Zuo
伍豐佐
Contributors: NTOU:Department of Aquaculture
國立臺灣海洋大學:水產養殖學系
Keywords: 鱒魚;虹鱒;益本比;生產函數;經濟分析
Trout;Rainbowtrout;Benefit-cost ratio;Cobb-Douglas function;Economic analysis
Date: 2015
Issue Date: 2018-08-22T06:05:37Z
Abstract: 臺灣鱒魚自1957年從日本所引進,在台養殖已經有將近60年的時間,近年來受到各種因素影響,使得鱒魚產量持續下降,無法滿足國內消費市場。為了尋找鱒魚產業未來發展走向,本研究針對臺灣鱒魚產業進行問卷調查,收集生物性及經濟性資料。分析方法應用多變量統計分析,釐清生產過程中,影響生產效益之關鍵因素。產業發展策略分析則應用SWOT分析,釐清臺灣鱒魚養殖優、劣勢。最後,綜合生產經濟與產業發展策略分析結果,提供未來臺灣鱒魚養殖發展策略之研擬。 本研究分為生產區域別、經營型態別及生產區域與經營型態交互作用進行分析,結果顯示,鱒魚養殖在生產區域別,生物變數、各項生產成本投入、獲利變數皆有顯著水準。整體獲利以竹苗地區最好,其次宜蘭地區,新北地區為最後。新北地區應改善養殖環境及投餵技術,提升活存率。宜蘭地區需提升飼料投餵技術,方可降低飼料成本,提高獲利能力。竹苗地區整體獲利效益最佳,但必須評估當地養殖風險,以減少水電及其他成本開銷。經營型態分為複合式餐廳及專業化養殖,生產成本投入密度、獲利變數在不同經營模式下具有顯著差異。複合式在獲利效益上表現較好,加上臺灣專養規模大小不如國外,因此,臺灣鱒魚養殖產業未來應轉型為複合式餐廳經營,配合觀光產業的興起,國內大量的鱒魚消費市場將以進口來彌補。最後,為生產區域與經營型態交互作用分析,結果顯示,在生物變數、生產成本投入密度、生產成本投入具有顯著差異,獲利變數及各項益本比則無。複合式餐廳適合在竹苗及新北地區經營,專業化養殖則在宜蘭地區較為適宜。生物面,活存率及放養密度會影響整體經營績效。根據Cobb-Duuglas生產函數分析,結果顯示,影響目前臺灣鱒魚養殖產業主要因素為飼料及人事,產業整體呈現報酬遞減情況。近年來,受到氣候變遷、天災及政策上的影響,臺灣適合養殖鱒魚的區域越來越少,整個鱒魚養殖產業正在漸漸萎縮當中。 據此,臺灣鱒魚養殖在各區域與型態中,生產效益表現各有好壞。影響生產經濟關鍵因素為飼料和人事成本投入,因此,應改善投餵技術及人力資源管理,將可增加收益。未來鱒魚養殖發展策略應注重:掌握養殖技術及加工優勢,建立品牌形象;開發多元化水產品,打造休閒觀光漁業;落實產銷班成立與運作,防止產銷失衡;利用各項研究報告,評估鱒魚產業未來發展性;強化養殖生產區整合並協助產業升級,降低養殖漁業損失。當產業更加穩定,投資環境更加完善,便會吸引更多相關企業和資源投入產業鏈,方能延續產業壽命。
Rainbow trout was introduced from Japan since 1957, and be cultured in the local about 60 years. Recently, by a variety of factors, the yield of O. mykiss decrease continuously. It cannot satisfy domestic market anymore. In order to find the future development trend of the O. mykiss industry, this study aimed at rainbow trout industry and conducted a questionnaire survey to collect the information for both biological and economic side. Using multivariate statistical analysis as the analytic method, try to find out the key factors that impact the production efficiency in the its process. For industrial development strategy, SWOT analysis is applied to clarify the advantage and disadvantage of rainbow troutfarming. Finally, provide the strategies for Rainbow trout of Taiwan farming in future by the results of the production economic and industrial development strategy analysis. This study analyzed production areas difference, run patterns difference, production areas and business interaction patterns. The results showed that O. mykiss culture is at a significant level on production areas difference, biological variables, the cost of production inputs and variable profit. Area of Hsinchu and Miaoli has best overall profit, follow by Yilan County, where Xinbei City is at last. Xinbei City needs to improve both culture environment and feeding technology to raise the survival rate. Yilan County must improve feeding technology to decrease the price of feed and increase the profit. Although area of Hsinchu and Miaoli has best score, they must be careful about the risk of the culture at local, try to minimize the cost of utilities and other stuff. Business patterns, such as compound restaurant, specialized breeding, production cost investment density, and profitability variables, have significant difference at different business mode. Compound restaurant shows better profit than others. In addition, size of the specialized breeding in Taiwan is smaller than foreign. With the raise of sightseeing, farming industry of rainbow trout should transform to compound restaurant pattern, and satisfy domestic market by importing. Finally, for the analysis of the production areas and business interaction patterns, the results show that there are significant difference at biological variables, production cost investment and its density, and no difference at both variable profit and benefit-cost ratio.Compound restaurant is a good choice for Xinbei City and the area of Hsinchu and Miaoli, where specialized breeding is better for Yilan County.At the biological side, survival rate and stocking density have effect on overall business performance. According to the analysis result of the Cobb-Douglas function, the results show that farming industry of rainbow trout has feed and staff issue. The salary of the industry decreases continuously. For the past few years, due to the effect of Global Warming, natural disaster and policy, the farming of O. mykiss culture in Taiwan is gradually decreasing. According to this information, rainbow troutfarming has its own good side and bad side on the production efficiency performance at each area and patterns. The key factors of the production economics are feed and staff so they should improve the feeding technology and staff management to increase the benefit. In future, trout farming should focus on following strategy: master farming techniques and processing advantages, to build its own brand image; develop diversified aquatic products, to create leisure fisheries for sightseeing; set up marketing group and let them operate, to prevent the imbalances on production and marketing; use of various research reports, to assess the future development of the trout industry; strengthen the integration of aquaculture production areas, to assist industrial upgrading and reduce the loss of fish farming. When the industry is more stable and the investment environment is more perfect, it will attract more businesses and resources into the industry chain, which can increase the life of the industrial.
URI: http://ethesys.lib.ntou.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=G0010233047.id
http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/48512
Appears in Collections:[水產養殖學系] 博碩士論文

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