|Abstract: ||本試驗分為三個試驗進行，以寵物級雞肉粉取代魚粉蛋白40%，脫殼大豆粕取代魚粉蛋白12.4%，再設計添加不同比例的發酵黃豆粉取代魚粉，以此為基礎比較乾發酵黃豆添加量，對兩種不同蛋白及油脂利用率及添加發酵馬尾藻粉的效果。發酵黃豆粉分為濕的與乾的兩種，除了控制組以外每個處理組均添加濕的發酵黃豆粉5%，三個試驗皆以初始體重43.4克的點帶石斑進行八週試驗。 試驗一:以乾的發酵黃豆粉分別取代魚粉比例為0%、5%、10%、15%，各組飼料粗蛋白乾重為51%(濕重約CP46)，粗油脂為乾物的10%之等能量飼料。結果為隨著取代量增加，攝食量及增重有增加趨勢，但飼料效率則有下降趨勢。魚體指標方面，增高發酵黃豆在飼料中比例，並不影響肥滿度、肝體比、臟體比及腹腔脂質。血液生化值方面，血漿血糖(Glu)、和膽固醇(Chol)濃度無明顯趨勢，三酸甘油脂(TG)隨著魚粉取代量增加與發酵豆粉取代比例增加而增高。肝臟粗油脂隨著發酵黃豆取代比例增加而升高的趨勢。 試驗二:試驗設計為乾的發酵黃豆粉分別取代魚粉0%(FS 0)、10%(FS 10)，粗蛋白分別為46%(LP)及51%(HP)，及粗油脂分別為10%(LF)及15%(HF)，以2×2×2三因子評估發酵黃豆粉取代魚粉、飼料蛋白及油脂含量對點帶石斑魚成長影響。結果為增加發酵黃豆添加量飼料效率降低，攝食率增加；高蛋白處理組飼料效率、增重率及日成長率比低蛋白處理組佳；高油脂處理組飼料效率比低油脂處理組佳。魚體指標方面，肥滿度、臟體比及腸繫膜脂質高油脂處理組顯著高於低油脂處理組(P<0.01)。血液生化值方面，三酸甘油脂(TG)、膽固醇(Chol)，高油脂處理組數值較低油脂處理組高有顯著差異(P<0.01)。肝臟成分方面，肝臟蛋白質，高蛋白處理組之肝臟蛋白較低蛋白處理組高有顯著差異(P<0.01)，肝臟油脂，高油脂處理組之肝臟油脂較低油脂處理組高有顯著差異(P<0.01)。試驗組飼料不影響魚體腹肌組成。 試驗三:添加大豆粕或發酵黃豆(添加5%濕發酵黃豆粉)飼料組別中添加發酵馬尾藻粉，評估此功能性飼料對點帶石斑魚成長與生理反應的影響。結果為添加發酵馬尾藻粉在成長指標、魚體指標、血液生化值、肝臟與腹肌成分和無添加組無顯著差異(P>0.05)，添加發酵海藻組之超氧歧化酵素活性略高於未添加組。 整體而言，在成長與成本的考量下FS15有較佳的增重率與攝食率，此時取代魚粉蛋白共78.9%。高蛋白(51%)高油脂(15%)組有較高的飼料效率，有蛋白質節約效果產生。在飼料中添加發酵馬尾藻0.5%對於點帶石斑之成長、魚體指標、血液生化值、肝臟成分、腹肌成分與肝臟超氧岐化酵素活性均無顯著影響。|
In this study, fish meal protein was replaced with poultry meal (P) and soybean meal (S) at 40% and 12.4% respectively. Three experiments were designed to evaluate the effect of replacing fish meal with fermented soybean meal (FS), and at two different protein and lipid levels and the effect of supplementing fermented algae (FA) powder on the growth, feed utilization and physiological response of grouper (Epinephelus coioides) . Two types of FS (wet and dry) were used. About 5% of wet FS was added in all the treatments except control treatment. In the three experiments, the average initial body weight of grouper was about 43.4 g and reared for 8 weeks. Experiment 1: An iso-proteic, 51% protein (ca. dry matter basis) and iso-lipidic, 10% lipid diet contained dry FS replacing fish meal at 0%, 5%, 10% and 15% levels. The results showed that feed intake (FI) and weight gain (WG) increased gradually as the FS inclusion level increased. However, feed efficiency (FE) reduced gradually as the inclusion level of FS increased. Conditional factor, hepatosomatic index, viscerosomatic index, intraperitoneal fat were not significantly affected by the experimental diets. Plasma glucose and plasma cholesterol showed no significant trend. Plasma triglyceride and liver lipid increased gradually as the FS inclusion level increased. Experiment 2: FS replaced fish meal at 0% and 10% levels in a three factorial experimental design containing 46 (LP) and 51% (HP) crude protein and 10 (LF) and 15% (HF) crude lipid. The results showed that FE reduced with the inclusion FS. FI increased with the inclusion FS. FE, WG and SGR of fish fed high-protein (HP) diets were higher than those fed low-protein (LP) diets. FE of the fish fed high-fat (HF) diets were higher than those fed low-fat (LF) diets. Conditional factor, viscerosomatic index, intraperitoneal fat, plasma cholesterol, plasma triglyceride of fish fed high-fat (HF) diets were significantly higher than those fed low-fat (LF) diets (P<0.01). Liver protein of fish fed high-protein (HP) diets were higher than those fed low-protein (LP) diets (P<0.01). Liver lipid of fish fed high-fat (HF) diets were significantly higher than those fed low-fat (LF) diets (P<0.01). Abdominal muscle composition were not significantly affected by the experimental diets. Experiment 3: Six experimental diets of 0% dry FS + 5% wet FS, 0% S and 10% S with or without the supplementation of fermented algae powder (FA) were designed to evaluate their effect on growth and physiological response of grouper (Epinephelus coioides). The results showed that growth performance, body index, blood chemistry, liver and abdominal muscle composition of the fish fed diets supplemented with FA were not significantly different. The activity of Superoxide dismutase (SOD) was higher in the fish fed diets with FA than those fed diets without FA, but were not significantly different. The overall growth performance and cost analysis showed that FS15 had better WG and FI. Therefore, fish meal protein can be replaced up to 78.9%. High protein (51%) and high-fat (15%) diets had higher feed efficiency and protein sparing effect. Fish fed diets supplemented with FA 0.5% showed no significantly difference in growth performance, body index, blood chemistry, liver and abdominal muscle composition and SOD.