|Abstract: ||本論文分為兩個試驗進行，旨在探討在脂肪酸組成相似下，以寵物級雞肉粉(Poultry by product meal, P)與脫殼大豆粕(Dehulled soybean meal, S)作為替代蛋白源，對點帶石斑(Epinephelus coioides)之成長指標、魚體指標、血液生化值、腹肌與肝臟成分之效應，並評估添加龍鬚菜熱水萃取物對上述指標及超氧歧化酵素活性之影響。兩個試驗分別在兩套循環水系統中進行八週之成長試驗，對照飼料組(Control)之粗蛋白定為49%，粗油脂16%，魚粉添加量58%(魚粉蛋白占飼料總蛋白89.8%)，各組飼料均為等蛋白、等油脂與等能量。 試驗一為添加雞肉粉與大豆粕取代魚粉試驗，單獨或混合取代魚粉添加量0% (Control)、40% (P40、P20S20、S40)、60% (P60、P40S20、P20S40、S60)、80% (P80、P60S20、P40S40、P20S60)與100% (P80S20、P60S40、P40S60)，共十五組飼料。在成長指標方面，單獨以雞肉粉取代魚粉可達80%而不影響成長表現；單獨以大豆粕取代魚粉達40%以上時會使飼料效率降低；混合添加雞肉粉與大豆粕(P40S20)可取代魚粉達60%而不影響成長表現。魚體指標方面，以雞肉粉取代魚粉不會影響魚體指標；隨著魚粉取代比例與大豆粕添加比例增加，肥滿度與肝體比逐漸降低。血液生化值方面，以雞肉粉取代魚粉不會影響血液生化值；隨著魚粉取代比例與大豆粕添加比例增加，三酸甘油脂上升；各試驗組之血糖與膽固醇無顯著差異。肝臟成分方面，以雞肉粉取代魚粉不會影響肝臟成分；隨著魚粉取代比例與大豆粕添加比例增加，粗脂肪增加，粗蛋白與水分降低，灰份與肝醣則無顯著差異。腹肌成分方面，以雞肉粉取代魚粉不會影響腹肌成分，隨著魚粉取代比例與大豆粕添加比例增加，粗脂肪增加，水分與粗蛋白降低，灰份則無顯著差異。 試驗二為添加龍鬚菜熱水萃取物試驗，飼料分為對照飼料組(Control)、高魚粉取代比例飼料(P40S40、P40S60)兩組，與分別添加0.1%之龍鬚菜熱水萃取物飼料(P40S40A、P40S60A)兩組，共五組飼料。結果顯示，添加龍鬚菜萃取物對點帶石斑之成長指標、魚體指標、血液生化值、肝臟與腹肌成分與超氧岐化酵素活性皆無顯著影響。 整體而言，在滿足點帶石斑脂肪酸與能量需求下，品質良好之寵物級雞肉粉可取代魚粉達80%而無明顯負面影響；大豆粕的添加量應在40%以下，超過20%至40%仍待進一步了解，以避免飼料效率、成長率、魚體指標、血液生化值、腹肌與肝臟成分產生不良影響；在成長與成本考量之下，P40S20為較適當的取代比例；雞肉粉比大豆粕為更好之替代蛋白源。添加龍鬚菜熱水萃取物在此試驗之成長與免疫指標則均無顯著效果。|
In this study, two experiments were designed. First, to test the effect of pet grade poultry by-product meal,P and dehulled soybean meal,S as alternative protein sources on the growth performance, body index, blood parameters, liver and abdominal muscle composition of grouper, Epinephelus coioides. The second experiment was to evaluate the above parameters and also the effect of Gracilaria tenuistitata (hot water extract),A on the superoxide dismutase activity of grouper. The two experiments were carried out in two different recirculting aquaculture systems. Triplicate groups of E coioides (initial average weight: 10.1g and 11.1g for experiment 1 and 2 respectively) at 28oC water temperature, were fed twice daily to satiation for the period of eight weeks on each isonitrogenous, isolipidic and isoenergetic diets for both experiments (49% crude protein and 16% crude lipid) with different replacement of fish meal by poultry by-product meal and dehulled soybean meal alone and/or in combination. The control diet contained only brown fish meal (Herring) and the other diets consist of 0% (control), 40% (P40, P20S20, S40), 60% (P60, P40S20, P20S40, S60), 80% (P80, P60S20, P40S40, P20S60) and 100% (P80S20, P60S40, P40S60) poultry by-product meal and dehulled soybean meal replacing fish meal in the first experiment and the second experiment contained 80% (P40S40, P40S40A), and 100% (P40S60, P40S60A) poultry by-product meal and dehulled soybean meal with the addition of 0.1% Gracilaria tenuistitata (hot water extract). In the first experiment, it was observed that poultry by-product meal could replace up to 80% fish meal with no negative effect on growth performance. Fish meal replacement by soybean meal at 40% or higher decreased feed efficiency, but the combination of poultry by-product meal and dehulled soybean meal (P40S20) could replace up to 60% without any negative effect on growth performance. Fish meal replacement by poultry by-product meal had no negative effect on body index, blood parameters, liver and abdominal muscle composition of orange spotted grouper. When the ratio of soybean in the diet increased,liver HSI decreased, TG increased, crude lipid (liver) increased, crude protein and moisture content (liver) decreased, ash and glycogen content of the liver did not have any significant difference. In complete replacement of fish meal treatments and dehulled soybean meal above 40%, a decrease in CF was observed. There was no effect on blood glucose and cholesterol levels among all the treatments. In experiment two, the result indicates that the addition of Gracilaria tenuistitata (hot water extract) in the diets had no significant effect on superoxide dismutase, growth performance, body index, blood parameters, liver and abdominal composition of E coioides. In conclusion, on satisfying the fatty acid of orange-spotted grouper E coioides, high quality poultry by-product meal could replace up to 80% fish meal in orange-spotted grouper E coioides without negative effect on growth performance. In this study, dehulled soybean meal could only replace up to 40%. Cost analysis of the experimental diets showed that the combination of poultry by-product meal and dehulled soybean meal (P40S20) diet is economical and more appropriate based on the growth performance.