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题名: 船舶塢修工安事故之研究
A Study of Ship Docking Repair Working Safety
作者: Wu, Hsuan-Wei
吳宣緯
贡献者: 國立臺灣海洋大學:商船學系
关键词: 安全管理;工安事故;商船塢修
safety management;industrial safety accident;ship docking repair
日期: 2016
上传时间: 2018-08-08T03:41:38Z
摘要: 兩岸在開啟三通之後,中國大陸的修造船業已經是國內船東在維修或新造船所首選的地區,即使曾經經歷過海運業的低潮期,卻在修造船業仍具有領先地位。其中大陸地區船廠最大優勢即是人力及施工隊伍的眾多與基本材料物料的成本誘因。但不可否認的,勞工的素質參差不齊、安全管理上的控制以及員工教育制度的訓練都是引影響大陸地區船廠在修造船上的效率原因。在近年來海運市場較為低迷的情況下,成本預算一直是船東最為考慮的原因。修造船業的作業環境隱藏著很多危險,畢竟造船工作是個需要付出大量勞力的重工業,而在造船的同時也很重視機器與人、人與人的配合及作業安全,在這高度需要大量勞力與機器精準配合的產業上,只要稍有不慎發生工安事件,伴隨而來的極可能是導致一個家庭或多個家庭的破碎,為了避免這種結果產生,本研究將以安全管理為主題,並以多起在大陸地區船廠所發生的工安意外個案為分析對象,針對造船廠安全管理的問題與原因作深入探討,並作出安全管理部門所該應對方式與提出具體建議。 本研究將針對五十二起案例來從中探討發生的主要原因,所得到的重點結論如下: 一、事故類型的眾多 船舶修造業工安事故共有七大類,包含物體打擊意外(19%)、高空墜落事故(28%)、起重傷害事故(19%)、火災傷害事故(19%)、工業用車輛事故(6%)、機械傷害事故(3%)與觸電事故(6%)。 二、事故發生有其週期性 每日的事故發生高峰期是在10-11時、14時前後與17-18時,這樣的週期特性也是取決於職工的生理或心理的變化,如10時是工作最繁忙的時段;14時是剛午休完畢;17-18時則是接近下班時段,因而影響到職工的生理或心理造成了工安事故。 每月份也有其週期性,3-6月是事故的高峰期,7-10月相對平穩,從11月開始則又慢慢上升至次年3月。 三、工安事故的發生大多是因人而引起的 從案例中發現,人為疏失是引起工安意外事故的最主要因素,而造成人為因素又有其12大原因,因此如何利用安全管理來做有效的控制甚至是預防才是船廠及管理部門最需要去做研究的。而本研究也提供了一些預防方式提供船廠參考,以期能達到零工安的修造工程。 關鍵字:安全管理、工安事故、商船塢修、案例比較分析法
After the opening of the Three Links of both Taiwan strait districts, the ship repairing and building industry in Mainland China has been the first choice for domestic ship owners to repair or build ships. Even having experienced hard times, the maritime industry in China still is in the leading position for ship repairing and building. The advantages of the shipyards in Mainland China lies in its manpower, the sheer number of construction teams, and cost incentives of basic materials. However, undeniably, the uneven labor quality, lack of safety management control, and lack of the employee training and education system were the main causes influencing the efficiency of the ship repairing and building industry in the Mainland. Under the condition of a more depressed shipping market in recent years, generally the cost budget has been the uppermost consideration for the ship owners. Factors such as the repair period and yaw cost were taken into account by the ship owners and the management teams. With fierce competition in the ship building industry, achieving manpower optimization through inheritance of technique and experience, building a safety management division to strengthen health policies, structure, the planning of systems of measures, and the dynamic cycle process of essentials such as assessment and improvement measures, as well as realizing the policies and goals of safety management have been the priority issues for the ship owners, where corrective and improvement measures were to be adopted continuously to improve the implementation of safety operations in the Mainland Area. A lot of danger lurks in the operating environment of the ship building industry, which is a heavy industry that requires a lot of labor. The industry highly values the safety of operations and the coordination between machine and human or between two humans. For an industry requiring such accurate coordination of labor and machinery, the slightest mistake can cause industrial disaster, subsequently resulting in one or many broken families. Aimed to avoid this tragedy, this study uses safety management as the theme and selects multiple industrial accidents occurring in the shipyards of the Mainland Area as the targets of analysis to deeply investigate the problems and the causes of safety management encountered by the shipyards. Then, concrete suggestions are proposed. The important conclusions regarding the main causes of industrial safety accidents based on 52 cases are as follows: 1.There are numerous types of incidents Industrial safety accidents of the ship building industry were classified into 7 types, including being hit by objects (19%), falling from a high altitude(28%), crane-related injury (19%), fire injury (19%), industrial vehicle accident (6%), mechanical injury (3%) and electric shock (6%)。 2.Accidents occurs periodically The peak of daily accidents was found to be between 10 and 11 am, at 2PM, and between 5 and 6 pm. Such periodicity was also determined by the physiological or psychological changes in workers. For example, 10 am features the busiest work time, 2 pm corresponds to time just after a lunch break, and the period between 5 and 6 pm is close to the off-work time, which might cause industrial safety accidents because the physiological or psychological conditions of workers are influenced. Besides, accidents also happen more or less frequently based on what month it was. The peak of accidents was found to be between March and June; the occurrence rate of accidents was relatively stable between July and September; and beginning in November, the accident occurrence rate rose slowly again until the next March. 3.Most of the industrial safety accidents resulted from human errors The cases suggested that human errors accounted for the main causes of industrial safety accidents, while twelve causes contributed to human errors. Therefore, it is necessary for shipyards and management teams to investigate how to take advantage of safety management to enable effective control and even prevention of accidents. This study also provides some prevention methods, which serves as a reference for the shipyards, in the hopes of achieving zero industrial accidents in the ship repairing and building industry. Key words: safety management, industrial safety accident, ship docking repair, case comparative analysis method
URI: http://ethesys.lib.ntou.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=G004004A011.id
http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/47724
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