|Abstract: ||商船營運不論貨櫃船、散裝船、油輪或雜貨船，舉凡機器與設備必定需要保養維修，更是要確保船舶適航性為必備要件。塢修更是船舶主要且重要的修理項目，尤其以水下及船殼作業工程必需進塢才能進行，且必須通過船籍協會塢修及特別檢驗認可後，始可簽發船舶適航證書。塢修多且雜的項目修理、檢驗和相對龐大的修理、檢驗等相關費用，時間的花費、人力及物力的消耗等，如何控制塢修成本、時間、預算等，對於船舶經營管理更視為極為重要課題。 海運相關界對於商船塢修有關的技術成本分析，已有諸多參考文獻已供參考，相對雜貨船相關資料較少，本研究以一艘現年16歲(2010年日本建造)傳統雜貨船，在歷經三次入塢大修(2010、2013及2015年)，巧合的是三次入塢大修皆在同一修造船廠及船塢，利用此一難得機會，統計常規費修理費用及船在塢修期間所產生的技術成本，進行逐一項目蒐集其完整的資料數據，並加以彙整分析，了解實際塢修成本結構的組成，提供日後船東在塢修前置準備工作、維修保養、檢驗和工作週期的工作安排上作為參考，進而在塢修期間達到最有效的成本控管，和最妥善的塢修安排及修理，為船東節省不必要的成本開支，創造最大的經濟效益。 本研究得到重要結論如下： 1、塢修成本主要集中於包括甲板機械工程、管系閥門工程、噴砂油漆工程、鋼質工程、服務專案，該五項支出計$ 176,530佔總支出成本81%。 已上五項工程場所皆是暴露於室外，經年累月受海風海浪襲擊，各裝備較易腐蝕受損，唯有靠船員經常除鏽油漆保養才能減少修理成本。 2、其他塢修成本集中於包括輪機工程、其它項目、配合工程、電器工程、鍋爐工程及自領材料等，平均總計$ 42,092，平均僅佔總支出成本19%。 3、追加工程包括其它項目$14,060配合工程$6,757共計$20,817，佔總支出7%，可明確顯示船方與公司工務作業保持密切配合，公司管理階層其有效作業管理值得推廣。 4、如何有效掌管塢修成本支出，除服務專案幾乎沒有任何彈性外，可以肯定完全管制在在甲板機械工程、管系閥門工程、噴砂油漆工程及鋼質工程等這四大項。 5、很有趣的項目服務專案，為入塢船塢服務作業，其所佔成本支出排序由2010第二降至2013第三及2015第五，服務專案幾乎沒有任何彈性，可預見下一次入塢大修將排除於第五名以外。|
Merchant shipping business either container ships, bulk carriers, oil tankesr or general cargo ships, it must to conduct needs to maintenance. The most important thing for ships is “Sea Worthiness”. Docking inspection is the primary and principal item of repairing and maintenance. During that time the underwater works can only be carried out. After having been approved and recognized by classifications can ships be issued with certificates of worthiness. There are obviously many complicated items of repairing and inspections in the course of docking accompanied by huge costs of man power, materials and money. This leads to the issue of efficient control of budget and time for docking, which is regarded as the major topic by vessel managers and operators. Many studies on the analysis of docking for merchant ships have been issued by shipping technical business. However, that for general cargo ships can hardly be found. This study presented herein possesses the features as stated successively., A 16 year old conventional general cargo ships (Built time 2000 in Japan) was chosen as an example. Through 3 times of docking repair, docking time are 2010, 2013, 2015 respectively. Fortunately the 3 times of docking repair are in same place and same docking factory. In such a rare chance, Routine expenses/tariffs are excluded. Only the technical cost incurred in the course of docking is explored. The complete data are collected, organized and analyzed items by items. Then can the infrastructure of budget be well built. This can act a useful reference for owners to arrange and plan well on the aspects of pre-docking works, repairing/maintenance and duration of inspection work. Moreover, efficient budget control and best arrangement of repairing and arrangement for docking/repairing/maintenance can be well achieved. There will be saving unnecessary costs and best economic benefits can be created. Through the detail studies and calculation. This study acquired conclusions as follows: 1、Docking maintenance costs are mainly concerned with deck work, piping system, derust and painting work, steel plate work and docking service work. The mainly 5 items totally costs are $ 176,530 account for 81% of total costs. 2、Except 5 major engineering costs, another including engineroom work, temporary work, supplyment work, electric work and boiler work etc,. Totally cost are $ 42,092 account for 19% of total costs. 3、Supplyment work including temporary and supplyment work are $ 20817 account for 7% of total costs. 4、How to control and save the docking maintenance costs. Except the rigidly docking service cost, this study are proved including deck work, piping system, painting and derust work, steel plate work are mostly vital important items. 5、It is really funny found, that docking service is a fixed cost. This rate in order is decreased year by year from 2010, 2013 and 2015. We shall anticipated that the rate will decended excluding 5 major costs next drydocking.