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A Study of Competency and the Shortage of Taiwanese Rating
|Authors: ||Chen, Kuang-Yen|
Seafarer Rating;Competency;Shortage of Seafarers;Interview
|Issue Date: ||2018-08-08T03:41:20Z
|Abstract: ||台灣四面環海，是典型的海島國家，位於東亞航運的樞紐，其優越的地理位置，具備發展海洋運輸的先天優勢。海運事業運輸民生必需物資和工業原料，在台灣過去數十年快速發展經濟的過程中，扮演極為重要的角色。放眼全球航運業發展歷史，台灣航商營運的船隊規模，在全球航運業界占有一席之地，表現出非常傲人的成績。 依據交通部公布統計資料顯示，我國船員年齡偏高，平均年齡45歲，乙級船員具備航行或輪機當值之平均年齡高達50歲。103年交通部運輸產業論壇指出，我國航運業發展面臨乙級船員人數不足及人力資源斷層兩大問題。 本研究使用文獻回顧法及半結構式訪談法探討這些問題。回顧國內外船員相關文獻過程中，發現資料幾乎都著重於甲級船員，乙級船員則一直未受重視。本文希望補足現有文獻之缺乏，選擇聚焦在乙級船員，期望透過從不同的角度切入問題，提出不同的思考方向。 本文實地訪談國內17位各類型航運公司船員管理部門承辦人員，藉以了解航運業界聘僱我國乙級船員之現況、需求及困難，提出建議供我國政府、航運業界及各船員訓練機構參考，期望能夠有效提升我國乙級船員的素質與數量，滿足航運界的用人需求，緩解我國乙級船員人數不足與航運人力資源斷層的問題。 結果顯示，資深乙級船員如水手長與銅匠的經驗技術，直接影響船舶的保養與維修，並非外籍船員或短期培訓出的乙級船員可以替代，我國資深乙級船員對於航運公司營運甚至台灣航運業的發展，有其不可取代的重要性。 乙級船員人力斷層嚴重，海上工作經驗和技術難以傳承。近年來，各級海事學校畢業生上船工作意願低落，造成海事教育資源被大量浪費。乙級船員養成訓練班(乙訓班)提供海運業最穩定的人力，卻沒有得到政府任何補助。 本研究結論建議如下： 1.建議我國政府對於乙訓班投入更多的教育及實習資源。 2.優化國內船員訓練單位的軟、硬體設備。 3.加強乙級船員訓練的實作課程與工安課程。 4.建議比照甲級船員設立我國乙級船員「重新適任性評估」機制，並建議除了船員「重新適任性評估」現行學科測驗的方式之外，另外再新增術科測驗。 5.調整國內船員訓練補助方式，規定學員上船工作取得海勤資歷，才能申請公費補助。此一方式既可減少海事教育資源浪費，也可以鼓勵「能適應並願意在海上工作」的船員繼續留在航運業發展。|
Taiwan, a typical island country surrounded by seas, is situated in a pivotal position of East Asia's shipping network, which endows it with the advantages of developing maritime transportation. Over the past decades, maritime transportation has played an important role in Taiwan’s rapid economic development. Shipping companies of Taiwan have very outstanding performance in the history of global shipping industry. According to statistic report of Taiwan’s Ministry of Transportation and Communications, the average age of Taiwanese seafarers is over 45 and of Taiwanese Seafarer Rating is over 50. One of the most urgent challenges of the development of Taiwan’s shipping industry is to face the shortage of Taiwanese seafarers, especially Taiwanese seafarer rating. Through reviewing related literatures and conducting interviews, the study has revealed these problems. This study aims to improve the quality and quantity of Taiwan’s seafarer ratings through providing constructive advices for the government, marine companies, and seafarer training institutions of Taiwan. In contrast to all existing studies focusing on seafarer officers, the paper focuses on Taiwan’s seafarer ratings. By using the approach of Semi-Structured Interviews, the research is based on interviews with 17 employees who directly deal with human-resource affairs in Taiwan’s marine shipping companies. Through the interviews, the investigation collected and analyzed those marine companies’ needs and challenges of hiring seafarers, especially the seafarer ratings. These interviews show that the senior seafarer ratings such as Boatswain (Bosun) and Fitters have dominant influence on the maneuvering and maintenance of merchant ships. Therefore, Seafarer Rating is playing a significant role for shipping companies and maritime industry of Taiwan. The shortage of Taiwan’s seafarer ratings has indicated an increasing gap in experience and skill. It’s a great waste of marine educational resource that Taiwan’s graduates from vocational marine high schools have rarely chosen to work at sea as seafarer ratings these years. Ironically, the students of Seafarer Rating Course, who provide steadily talents for Taiwan’s marine shipping industry, don’t receive any financial assistance from the government or marine shipping companies. The final suggestions are proposed as follows: 1.The government and marine shipping companies of Taiwan should provide more subsidies and opportunities of Maritime Practice for the students of Seafarer Rating Course. 2.In order to make Taiwan’s seafarer training more effective and efficient, the training facilities and devices of Taiwan’s seafarer training institutions should be upgraded 3.Seafarer rating’s training courses of safety awareness and practice should be improved. 4.Taiwan’s government should conduct re-assessment of competency for seafarer ratings in terms of the existing standards for seafarer officer. Since the academic test is not enough to evaluate the competency of seafarers, practical and technical tests are necessary additions in the process of re-assessment. 5.Most importantly, the study suggests that the government reform the requirements of subsidy eligibility for seafarer training. In order to reduce the waste of marine education resources, the government should make sure the subsidies in relevant training are only applied for seafarers who actually work at sea.
|Appears in Collections:||[商船學系] 博碩士論文|
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