|Abstract: ||臺灣四面環海位處太平洋航運樞杻位置，不僅擁有發展海運事業之優越條件， 更具有極重要之經貿重要戰略地位，且對外貿易尤賴海運而發展，伴隨著經濟貿 易的往來頻繁，海洋運輸更成為主要的運輸方式之一。海運業興衰更牽動著經濟 的脈動，然而海運事業與強大海運船隊之建立，首重海運人才之培訓。船舶乃為 海運經營的主要工具，船員則為船舶營運的尖兵，有龐大堅強的船隊，而欠缺優 秀的船員，自然無法發揮整體的經營實力。但近年來卻呈現本國籍船員短缺及海 事人力斷層的現象，海上人力短缺及欠缺優秀的航海人員。因此如何提高我國商 船船員上船之意願，及提升我國海運事業之競爭與促進其興盛，實為目前當務之 急。 根據波羅的海國際海事同盟/國際航運聯盟（BIMCO/ISF）的調查指出，若希 望海運產業可永續經營，就必須不斷地培訓新的海上人力資源。海運事業在工作 性質上是一較為特殊的職業，它需要複雜及高水準的技術、專業知識上的獨立判 斷及面對危機應變狀況的處理才能。 鑒於本國籍商船甲級船員嚴重匱乏，教育部遂核准了國內三所海事校院開辦 「學士後海勤第二專長學士學位學程」，其畢業生未來可能成為我國甲級船員的重 要來源。本研究旨在探究上述學生上船工作願意之影響因素，作者以善用機緣論、 職業興趣理論、以及需求層次理論等當作研究視角，並藉由質性取向之深入訪談 法蒐集研究資料。研究發現，大多數受訪者因對原本的工作不甚滿意，亟欲在職 涯發展上尋求突破，而在偶然的機緣下獲知上船工作可賺取優厚薪資，遂毅然地 放棄原本專長轉而學習海勤專業，期盼經由航海職涯以滿足自身需求。值得觀察 地，其強烈上船工作意願似乎為本國籍甲級船員不足的窘境帶來一線希望，然而 船員終日待在船上，與一般陸上工作之勞工，不論在作息、休閒及排解壓力之方 式有著極大差異，因此海上職場特性也是他們無可迴避的挑戰。 根據文獻回顧之相關論點，本研究以馬斯洛需求層次理論之模式為理論基礎， 並加以探討受訪者因情境機緣，引發出職業興趣進而影響社會生涯之發展規劃等 結果發現：學士後海勤第二專長學士學位學程的畢業生，生涯選擇模式之路徑關 係，皆與善用機緣論、職業興趣理論、馬斯洛需求層次理論及社會認知生涯理論 所提出之發展關係相同。該結果也顯示「學士後海勤第二專長學士學位學程」學 生未來就業偏好上船工作，且外在影響因素、馬斯洛提出人類需求五層次理論與 上船意願也皆呈現正向相關。|
As an island nation, Taiwan is situated at a pivotal position in the shipping network on the Pacific Ocean. Besides having the advantages to develop marine shipping, it also has strategic position in international trade. Foreign trade heavily relies on the development of marine shipping; hence, marine shipping has become one of the major shipping modes with growing economy and trade. The fluctuation of marine shipping is closely associated with economic development. The key in developing marine shipping and establishing strong fleets is the training of talents. Without outstanding seafarers, a fleet will be unable to make full use of its strength. However, in recent years, marine shipping faces the shortage of Taiwanese seafarers. The lack of human resource in maritime affairs and excellent sailors has become a major problem. Therefore, how to increase the willingness of Taiwanese seafarers to go aboard, how to improve the competitiveness in marine shipping of Taiwan, and how to develop the marine shipping industry in Taiwan are urgent issues. The investigation by BIMCO/ISF pointed out that it is important to continuously train new talents for marine shipping business, in order to maintain sustainable operation. Maritime works involve unique job features, which require complicated and high-level skills, independent professional judgment, and emergency responding ability. In view of the fact that there is a shortage of officers, the Ministry of Education approved three maritime colleges in Taiwan to offer “bachelor program of post-bachelor second major in marine service”. The graduates are expected to become the main source of officers in the future. This study aims to discuss the factors affecting students’ willingness to work aboard from the perspectives of theory of planned happenstance, occupational interest theory, and Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory. In addition, in-depth qualitative interviews were conducted. The results showed that most interviewees expect to make breakthroughs in career development because they were unsatisfied with their previous jobs. By accident, they learned that working aboard could generate a high salary. Thus, they firmly gave up their previous job, and started learning marine service, wishing to meet their own needs in marine career. It is worth mentioning that, their willingness to work aboard seems to bring hope for the predicament of the lack of officers. However, the nature of work differs from regular jobs, the life and work on the ship are also very different. Hence, the marine career inevitable poses challenges for them. According to literature review, this study referred to Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory, and explored the situations and chances met by the interviews to initiate the career interest. The results showed that the subjects’ path relations of career choice are consistent with the theory of planned happenstance, the occupational interest theory, Maslow’s Need Hierarchy Theory, and social cognitive life theory. The result also indicated that the subjects have the intention to work aboard, which positively correlates with Maslow’s Five Need Hierarchy Theory in terms of external influencing factors.