|Abstract: ||近年來社會快速變遷、加上國民生活水準提高以及家庭少子化等因素之影響，高薪待遇的船員工作，已漸漸對國內航輪科系畢業生失去誘因，也導致他們對未來上船工作意願低落。依據交通部航港局船員統計公告資料顯示，截至2015年1月底止，其中我國船員在國內外船舶服務人數僅3,976人，另也顯示，我國乙級船員佔整體船員46.48%，且平均年齡偏高；對航運公司而言，人力斷層的危機已然浮現，同時也無法傳承海上工作經驗，形成技術斷層。因此，培育航海及輪機專業人才並提升其上船工作意願已是海運事業發展最重要的課題之一。 2013年4月17日「船員訓練檢覈及申請核發證書辦法」修正後，使高職海勤類科畢業生具備三年的乙級船員資歷後，即可報考甲級船員，此因素大大提升高職海勤類科學生上船的機會與動機。本研究依立意抽樣法，以國立基隆高級海事職業學校海勤類科2014年畢業生19位有上船工作意願者為對象進行訪談，採用「社會認知生涯理論」進行質性研究，探討上船工作意願的相關社會生涯因素。依據「社會認知生涯理論」主要構面「自我效能」、「結果預期」、「職業興趣」、及「社會系絡」進行研究，同時加入「船員訓練檢覈及申請核發證書辦法」修正後對學生影響討論，做為質性研究的訪談大綱。另外再加入背景之構面，以瞭解影響學生上船意願的因素。 研究結果顯示，高職海勤類科畢業生之「自我效能」及「結果預期」，對其上船工作意願有直接的影響。換言之，輔導海勤類科學生生涯規劃，可以有效加強學生擔任船員的自信心，增加其自我效能，並大幅地提升其上船工作意願。爰此，本研究認為海事職校除了教導學生所需之專業技能外，亦應輔導及有效加強學生擔任船員的自信心，以增加他們的上船工作意願。另外，法規修正後不只是改變了乙級船員的升遷方式，更重要的是提升了高職學生上船的意願，讓學生主動建構生涯藍圖。 基於研究發現，本研究建議海事職校應多聘任具海勤資歷之專任教師，在學生生涯輔導方面應著重興趣與意願的探索，教師教學過程應著重海勤工作內容及特性，以激發學生上船意願。此外，政府及立法部門對法規的修訂要更務實及重視時效，暢通乙級船員的升遷管道。同時，政府及學校應對海勤工作加以宣導，提高社會大眾對海勤工作價值，讓家庭可以支持高職海勤類科學生的航海夢，鼓勵學生投身海勤工作。|
In recent years, due to rapid social changes, improved living standards, low birth rate, and other factors, the well-paid seafarer work has lost incentive to the graduates of navigational and marine engineering departments in Taiwan. This has resulted in a low willingness toward working on board. Based on the statistics of the Maritime and Port Bureau,MOTC, as at the end of January 2015, there are only 3976 Taiwanese seafarers who work in Taiwan or around the world. Among those, ratings account for 46.48%, and their average age is rather old. As for shipping companies, the crisis of talent gap has emerged, and the working experience on the sea cannot be passed down as well, which results in technical gap. Consequently, it is a concern for the maritime programs to cultivate navigational and marine engineering talents, and enhance their willingness to work on board. After the amendment of the Seafarer Law on April 17, 2013, the graduates of seafaring vocational high schools who have 3 years of experience as rating can take the officer qualification examination. This amendment offers the students an opportunity and motivation to work on board. By purposive sampling, this study interviews 19 graduates of Department of Seafaring, National Keelung Maritime Vocational High School in 2014, who intended to work on board. Qualitative research of “Social Cognitive Career Theory” was conducted. The social career factors regarding willingness of working on board were discussed. The main dimensions of “Social Cognitive Career Theory” include “self-efficacy”, “outcome expectation”, “occupational interest” and “social context”. The impact of the amendment of the Seafarer Law on students was also discussed, as the interview outline for the qualitative research. Moreover, the dimensions of background were included so as to understand the factors that affect the willingness of students on board. The results showed that the “self-efficacy” and “outcome expectation” of the graduates of martime vocational high schools have a direct influence on their willingness to work on board. In other words, the guidance of career planning of students in Departments of Seafaring could effectively enhance the confidence of students to work as seafarers, increase their “self-efficacy”, and significantly elevate their willingness to work on board. Hence, this study argues that besides the instruction on professional skills, the seafaring vocational high schools could guide and enhance the confidence of students to as seafarers, so as to intensify their willingness to work on board. Moreover, after the amendment of regulations, the promotion criteria of ratings have changed, and the willingness of vocational high school students to work on board has enhanced. Thus, the students can have a clear career plan. Based on the results, this study suggests that seafaring vocational high schools should recruit more full-time teachers with seafaring qualifications, and emphasize on the exploration of students’ interest and willingness regarding career guidance. The teachers are expected to pay attention to the work content and features of seafaring during lecturing process, so as to stimulate the willingness of students to work on board. The revision over regulations by the government and legislation department should be more pragmatic, focus on the aging problem, and make the promotion channels of ratings smoother. Meanwhile, the government and the schools should advocate on the seafaring work, enhance the recognition of seafaring work by social mass, encourage families to support the seafaring dreams of students, and stimulate the students to engage in seafaring work.