|Abstract: ||在全球海上人力資源面臨求才若渴的情況下，臺灣船員市場亦呈現供不應求的窘境。隨著社會的變遷，臺灣年輕人大多不願投入辛苦的船員行業，即便是航海系學生亦有不低的比例視船員職場為畏途。另一方面，在船員供需失衡及船公司的營運成本考量下，中國大陸船員廣受臺灣航商的青睞，不僅使我國船員的工作機會受到威脅，同時也損及臺灣航海系畢業生的上船工作機會。基於此，中國大陸之船員供給情形，以及臺灣海峽兩岸航海系學生之上船工作意願遂成為吾等必須關注的議題。 綜整文獻回顧的相關論點，本研究以社會認知生涯理論之職業選擇模式為基礎，建構「臺灣海峽兩岸航海系學生之上船工作意願影響模式」，探究臺灣海峽兩岸航海系學生之自我效能、結果預期、職業興趣以及社會系絡對上船工作意願之影響關係，研究對象以臺灣與中國大陸之航海系學生為主，調查問卷施測範圍包含國立臺灣海洋大學、高雄海洋科技大學、臺北海洋技術學院及大連海事大學之大學部學生，假設模式校估係以結構方程模式執行，並分析臺灣海峽兩岸航海系學生上船工作意願的影響因素差異。 研究發現，在臺灣航海系學生模式中，「自我效能」係影響上船工作意願的最主要因素，而在大連海事大學模式中，此因素僅有微幅的間接影響；此外，「社會系絡」對大連海事大學航海系學生之上船工作意願有顯著的直接影響，但該因素僅間接地影響臺灣同儕之上船工作意願；再者，「職業興趣」係影響臺灣航海系學生上船工作意願之最大直接因素，而該因素在大連海事大學模式中，則為無任何顯著影響作用。 最後，作者建議國內海事校院若欲提升航輪畢業生的「質」與「量」，可從招收有上船需求及意願的學子著手，彙整產、官、學各界之資源，提供具吸引力的誘因，例如高雄海洋科技大學設置「4+1」（學士後航海學士學位）之作法，以吸引優質且具強烈上船動機的年輕學子加入船員行列，應是當前頗值得航運界相關人士深思的議題。|
Due to lack of maritime human resources around the world, Taiwan is also facing the problem of insufficient seafarers. In today’s society, many Taiwanese young people refuse to work onboard ships, even a large proportion of students in the department of navigation exclude the seafaring. In consideration of the insufficient seafarers and the operating cost of shipping companies, seafarers from China are favored by Taiwan’s shipping companies. Thus, it not only threatens the job opportunity of Taiwanese seafarers, but also reduces the job opportunity to work onboard ships for Taiwanese navigational graduates. Therefore, the situation of seafarers supply in China and the Taiwanese navigational students’ willingness to work onboard ships are important issues. Based on literature review, this study adopted the career choice model of Social Cognitive Career Theory, and constructed “the influencing model of Taiwanese navigational students’ willingness to work onboard ships”. It further explored the influence of self-efficacy, outcome expectations, vocational interest and social context for navigational students on their willingness to work onboard ships. The subjects were Taiwanese and Chinese navigational students. The research scope included undergraduate students in Taiwan Ocean University, Kaohsiung Marine University, Taipei College of Maritime Technology, and Dalian Maritime University. The hypothesis model was validated by Structural Equation Modeling to analyze the influencing factor on navigational students’ willingness to work onboard ships. The results showed that among Taiwanese students, “self-efficacy” was the major factor influencing their willingness to work onboard ships, while among the students of Dalian Maritime University, “self-efficacy” only had slight indirect influence. In addition, “social context” had significantly direct influence on the willingness to work onboard ships for students of Dalian Maritime University. This factor only had an indirect influence on the Taiwanese students’ willingness to work onboard ships. Furthermore, “vocational interest” was the main direct factor influencing the Taiwanese students’ willingness to work onboard ships, while this factor had no significant influence on students of Dalian Maritime University. This paper suggests to recruit students who are willing to work onboard ships, in order to enhance the “quality” and “quantity” of navigational graduates. Moreover, resources from the industry, government and academia should be integrated to offer incentives, such as the “4+1” (post bachelor's degree of navigation) offered by Kaohsiung Marine University to attract excellent young students with strong boarding motivation to join the seafaring. This topic should be further studied.