|Abstract: ||綜觀古今中外，海洋運輸產業莫不屬於陽剛的男性工作場域。物換星移，時至今日，隨著二十一世紀船舶操作逐漸自動化、海事從業員額日益緊縮及性別平權意識抬頭，女性船員上船工作，實可證明船員職場性別分工的遞移之必要性與必然性。 自1994年，臺灣教育制度首度開放女性就讀航海科，直至1998年，女性見習船副終於首次出現在商船上。女性人力資源挹入船員職場，應可舒緩本國籍船員短缺及海事人力斷層的現象，但目前臺灣航運界並非能全然接受女性上船工作，女性船員職場依舊存在著許多限制，航商仍無法豁然的接受女性船員。 然此一矛盾現況並未造成女性在海事工作中退卻，女性仍不屈不撓的願意投身陽剛的職場工作，試圖在職場中證明巾幗不讓鬚眉的實力。基於此現況，本研究期待一窺女性上船工作的動機取向，採質性研究法中之訪談法，分析「女性航海學生」、「在職女性船員」與「男性船員」的觀點，繼以Keller（1983）提出的學習動機模式（ARCS model）：引起注意(Attention)、切身相關(Relevance)、建立信心(Confidence)、感到滿足(Satisfaction)四個要素為架構，務求完整且真實的呈現女性船員工作之態貌，及其從事海勤工作之心境與困境，佐以男性視角的論述，打破性別刻板印象之窠臼，一探女性船員上船工作的動機取向。 研究發現女性上船工作動機強烈，即使航商釋出的工作職缺較男性少，但女性十分願意嘗試，給自己一顯身手的機會。而以ARCS model分析女性船員上船工作動機之四大面向中，以「高薪資水準」影響為鉅。女性獲得上船工作的機會彌足珍貴，因此女性無不格外珍惜，希望能在船上一展長才。女性亟需在職場上憑藉著積極進取的企圖心，與奮力一搏的具體行動，證明女性航海任務的適任性。 作者最終依據研究結果深入討論，並對女性船員、航商與政府單位提出相關建議。女性船員為十分稀有的少數族群，又因工作性質特殊，大部分時間均在海上工作，故其工作樣態與心境往往是十分神秘的，基於此，本研究之訪談資料愈顯珍貴，能深入探究女性船員的職場樣貌、心路歷程與內在動機，實屬不易。|
From ancient to modern times and from Eastern to Western countries, the shipping industry has been dominated by male workers. However, things have changed with the elapse of time. At present, along with the gradual automatic operation of ships and boats in the 21st century, the shrinking number of seafares, and the emerging concept of gender equality, female seafarers also work on board, which has resulted in the necessity and inevitability of gender division of labor in seafarers’ workplace. In 1994, Education system in Taiwan started to admit female students to study navigational courses. In 1998, In 1998, the first female trainning ship-officer appeared on merchant vessel. Admitting female workers to the workplace of seafarers was supposed to alleviate the predicament of insufficient Taiwanese seafarers and a gap of workers in marine work. However, the shipping industry in Taiwan has not fully accepted females to work on board, female seafarers still face dozens of restrictions in the workplace, and shipping companies have yet to accept female seafarers with an open mind. Such as a paradoxical situation, nevertheless, does not thwart females from participating in seafaring. With an unyielding spirit, females still make themselves into such a masculine workplace, attempting to prove their ability that is not inferior to the ability of their male counterparts. In light of such a situation, this study anticipated to have a glimpse of female workers’ motivation to work on board. Interviewing as a qualitative research technique was employed to analyze perspectives of “female students enrolled in navigational courses”, “current female seafarers”, and “male seafarers”. Further, the four elements: attention, relevance, confidence, and satisfaction in the ASRC model proposed by Keller (1983) were used as a framework to explore the complete and real work situations of female seafarers, the mentality of female seafarers, and difficulties encountered by female seafarers. Narrations from the male perspective were also adopted in an attempt break away from the convention of gender stereotypes and get an insight into the motivation of female seafarers who work on board. Research findings revealed females’ strong motivation to work on board, and females are very willing to give it a try and use such an opportunity demonstrate to their abilities even though job openings from shipping companies are more for males rather than females. As revealed by using the ARCS model to analyze female seafarers’ motivation to work on board, “high salaries” make a huge influence. As an opportunity for females to work on board is usually rare and precious, females all particularly value and cherish such an opportunity and aspire to demonstrate their talent on board. Females at the workplace have an imperative need to use their ambition, go-getter motivation, as well as real actions with a passionate last-ditch determination in order to prove their competency for work at sea. Finally, an in-depth discussion was conducted based on results of this study, and relevant suggestions were proposed to female seafarers, shipping companies, and government departments. Female seafarers, who are already rare minorities, spend the majority of their time at sea due to the unique nature of their work. For that reason, the real scenes of female seafarers’ work and the mentality of female seafarers are usually mysterious. Data collected from interviews in this study appear especially precious, and it is never an easy task to have in-depth explorations of real scenes of female seafarers’ work and female seafarers’ psychological journey and inner motivation.