|Abstract: ||我國離岸風電之開發計畫全數選在沿岸漁業盛行之西部海域，因此勢必對當地漁業造成影響，然究竟離岸風場對漁業會造成何種影響、程度為何、又有何減輕或共存之對策，漁民均不甚瞭解，進而導致誤解與衝突之發生，阻礙我國離岸風電之發展。基此，本研究旨在探討離岸風場在施工前場址的規劃、漁業補償機制、風電回饋機制、漁業活動與淺海養殖的影響評估，以及施工中、商轉後之糾紛調處與資源影響，以及商轉後漁船航行安全與漁業友善空間規劃等問題，並提出可行之解決對策，俾利我國離岸風電之發展。其結果摘要如下： 一、全球離岸風電之發展重心仍集中於歐洲，其中英國以階段性之「區塊開發」成為全球裝置容量之領先者；德國則依靠本身良好的重工業技術緊追在後；而丹麥在發展上雖有減緩之趨勢，但因投入開發得早，故目前仍排在第三。 二、離岸風場相較於陸域風場，增加了基座建設、電網併聯與鋪設海底電纜等建造成本，因此必須藉由技術研發、市場需求與政策支持來降低成本。各國皆企圖提高單機之容量，期望在相同面積的海域中，能擷取更多的風力資源，並積極投入浮式風機之研究，企圖突破目前著床式風機受限於淺海區域之問題。 三、我國離岸風電之發展主要可分為三個階段，首先是透過獎勵補助之方式吸引業者投入示範風場之開發，接著公告36塊潛力場址，提供有興趣投資的業者能提早辦理準備作業，最後頒布「離岸風電區塊開發政策」，推動國內大規模之開發，訂定至2030年達到4GW。 四、我國目前無論是風機的設計、製造、建造與維修都須仰賴進口，因此應積極推動海事運維在地化、關鍵零組件國產化，以提升臺灣離岸風電之技術與產業之自給率，健全並加速我國離岸風電之發展。 五、我國雖然對於漁業權漁業之損害已有明確的補償基準，但其中漁獲淨收益損失(C3)的部分，有許多參數在制訂時並沒有說明該如何應用，且在漁業資源及生態復育(C4)的部分更是毫無科學依據，基此，為使補償公式更加合理、科學、好用，勢必要對其進行調整，甚或是直接參考日本以淨現值之方式來算定。 六、特定漁業之許可受到損害時基於信賴保護原則，也應給予合理之補償，因此建議可採用與漁業權漁業相同之補償基準來算定，而其中來自外縣市作業之漁船則必須自行提供有在該海域作業之證明，方能得到補償。 七、為增進漁民福祉與促進地區漁業永續發展，當地縣政府與漁會皆會要求開發單位撥付離岸風電回饋金，不過目前我國尚無統一該筆回饋金之計算與運用，故建議可調整臺電陸上發電行之有年的《臺電之促協金執行要點》，建立「離岸風電促協金」，以免造成雙方對立之局面。 八、風場對流刺網漁業之影響最大，因此須透過主管機關與漁民團體進行協商，請流刺網漁業主動採取迴避措施。 九、風場之航行安全設施除了應符合IALA的規定外，尚可在每座風機裝設燈光設備，並在風場周圍設置具有雷達反射器及燈光之浮標，以提高漁船對風場與風機之注意力。 十、我國若在離岸風場商轉後導入友善漁業空間規劃之概念，再加上風場設置後，形成之人工魚礁效應，可復育當地漁業資源，同時還能結合海洋生態教育與休閒漁業的發展，創造電力開發、漁業發展與資源復育三贏之局面。|
The development plans of offshore wind energy all carry out at the western maritime space which would affect the local fisheries because of the high develop of the coast fishery. However, the influence, which caused by the development of the offshore windfarm and the countermeasure to coexist with the fishery, was not well known by fisherman. These misunderstood would cause conflicts that interrupt the development of the offshore wind energy. Thus, the aim of our research is to study about the operation planning before construction, the fishery compensation, the feedback of the offshore wind energy, the impact assessment of the fishery activity and offshore mariculture, the dispute mediation and the affect of resources during construction and after operation, the safety of fishing boat sailing after operation and the friendly spatial planning of fishery. We also brought up the workable strategy to increase the development of the offshore wind energy. The abstract is as below: a. The development of the offshore wind energy mainly concentrates at Europe. Among these country of Europe, England became the leader of installed capacity of the world by execute regional development stepwise, follow up by German which has great technology of heavy industry. Otherwise, even though the development had slow down in Denmark, because of the early exploitation of the offshore wind energy makes Denmark become third place. b. Compare to the land wind energy, offshore wind energy has more prime cost because of the construction of base, the parallel power network and the submarine cable. Therefore, we need to decrease the prime cost by doing the research and developing technology, increasing the requirement of the market and the policy support. In order to overcome the problem of the limit position of implantation turbine, every country tend to increase the capacity of each turbine, which can obtain more wind resources in the same area, and do research of floating turbine. c. The development of the offshore wind energy can divided into three stages in Taiwan. First, we attract industry to develop the demonstration windfarm by reward and subsidy manner. Second, we bulletin thirty-six potential windfarm to provide the advanced preparing of industry for development. Finally, we bulletin the “ the strategy of the offshore wind block” to drive the internal large-scale development and aims to reach 4GW in 2030. d. These days, the design, manufacture, construction and repair of turbine all depends on import. Therefore, we need to drive localization of maritime operation-maintenance and the Taiwan-made key component to increase the technology of the offshore wind energy and become independent-industry, which can also increase the development of our offshore wind energy. e. Although Taiwan had set up the compensate standard of the damage of the fishery, there still some unknown parameters of profit and loss account of fishery harvesting (C3). The fishery resources and recovery of environment (C4) also have no scientific bases. Therefore, in order to make the compensate formula more reasonable, scientific and useful, we need to adjust it or calculate as net present value which just like Japan. f. Depends on the trust protection principles, it should get reasonable compensation when the specific fisheries damaged. Thus, we suggest calculating by the same compensation standard as fishery right. In addition, the fishing boat, which comes from other country, need to provide the certificate to prove the accessibility to get the compensation. g. In order to increase the welfare of fisherman and the sustainable development of local fishery, the county regional government and fisherman’s association both ask for the feedback money of the offshore wind energy from the development organization. Because there is still no union calculation and applications, we suggest to modify the rules of execution of the Taiwan Power Company’s operating assiatant money, which aims to promote the development of the electric power operations, to build up the promoting and assistant money of offshore wind energy that avoiding the conflict between each other. h. The offshore windfarm mainly influence the gill net fishery. Thus, it needs to consult and discuss with fisherman’s group through authorities to ask gill net fishery to avoid fishing in the offshore windfarm. i. The sailing security facilities in the windfarm need to fit in with the rule of IALA, in addition, it is available to assemble light equipment at each turbine and also set up the radar reflection and the shining float around the windfarm to increase fishing boats’ attention of windfarm and turbine. j. If we add friendly spatial planning of fishery into offshore windfarm after operation and in addition to the effect of artificial reef caused by setting up the windfarm, it can repopulation local fishery resources. It also can combine the marine ecology and leisure fishery to produce the electric power exploitation, fishery development and resource recovery which creates the win-win situation.