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|Title: ||Phase contrast: the frontier of x-ray and electron imaging|
|Authors: ||Y. Hwu|
|Issue Date: ||2018-07-05T08:54:00Z
|Publisher: ||JOURNAL OF PHYSICS D-APPLIED PHYSICS|
|Abstract: ||Abstract: Phase contrast has been a fundamental component of microscopy since the early 1940s. In broad terms, it refers to the formation of images using not the combination of wave intensities but their amplitudes with the corresponding phase factors. The impact on visible microscopy of biological specimens has been major.
This contrast mechanism is now playing an increasingly important role in other kinds of microscopy, notably those based on electrons or x-rays. It notably solves the background problem of weak absorption contrast. New breakthroughs and new techniques are continuously produced, unfortunately unknown to most of the scientists that could exploit them. The present special cluster issue of reviews was inspired by this situation.
The case of x-rays is very interesting. Phase contrast requires a high degree of longitudinal and lateral coherence. But conventional x-ray sources are not coherent. The progress of synchrotron sources yielded high coherence as a key byproduct—and started a rapid expansion of phase contrast radiology.
No review—or cluster of reviews—can possibly cover all the facets of the recent progress. Without trying to be absolutely comprehensive, the present special cluster issue touches a variety of issues, giving a very broad picture.
Liu et al review in general terms the different phase-based hard-x-ray techniques, with an interesting variety of examples. Then, Suortti et al and Wang et al present more specialized overviews of crystal and grating based x-ray imaging techniques, very powerful in the analysis of biological specimens. Mokso et al discuss the many facets of tomography using phase effects, expanding the picture of tomographic reconstruction of the three previous reviews.
Wu et al treat the rapid progress in hard-x-ray focusing and its impact on radiology and tomography for materials science and biomedical research. The next two reviews deal with special and very interesting classes of applications. Specifically, Lee et al discuss the use of the new radiology techniques in the study of liquids, and Coan et al present the progress in phase-contrast radiology analysis of real patients.
Although x-ray imaging is the main focus of the special cluster issue, the picture would not be complete without a view on the parallel and very exciting developments in electron microscopy. The last review, by Wu et al , is dedicated indeed to this broader picture, presenting recent progress in Zernike-related electron phase contrast.
We trust that the special cluster issue will not only update readers on the evolution of a very important class of experimental techniques, but also prepare them for the forthcoming developments. We are indeed at the threshold of another revolution. The recently inaugurated first x-ray free electron lasers bring, together with many other record performances, full lateral coherence and excellent longitudinal coherence. The first imaging experiments show in practice their impact, and indicate that this field, far from saturating its progress, is ready for new major breakthroughs.
|Appears in Collections:||[光電科學研究所] 期刊論文|
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