Abstract: Theoretical wave functions are analytically derived to characterize the propagation evolution of the Hermite–Gaussian (HG) beams transformed by a single-lens astigmatic mode converter with arbitrary angle. The derived wave functions are related to the combination of the rotation transform and the antisymmetric fractional Fourier transform. The derived formula is systematically validated by using an off-axis diode-pumped solid-state laser to generate various high-order HG beams for mode conversions. In addition to validation, the creation and evolution of vortex structures in the transformed HG beams are numerically manifested. The present theoretical analyses can be used not only to characterize the evolution of the transformed beams but to design the optical vortex beams with various forms.