Abstract: Review of the astronesthid fishes (Stomiiformes: Stomiidae: Astronesthinae) from Taiwan with a description of one new species. Zoological Studies 45(4): 517- 528. A review of the mesopelagic and bathypelagic astronesthid fishes from off Taiwan documented 11 species in 5 genera. Among them, 7 species and 4 genera are newly recorded. These include Astronesthes indica, A. indopacifica, A. splendida, Borostomias elucens, Eupogonesthes xenicus, Heterophotus ophistoma, and Rhadinesthes decimus. In addition, 1 new species, A. formosana sp. nov. is described. Descriptions, diagnostic keys, line-drawings, and color photographs are provided.