Based on trawl surveys in the Bering Sea and Chukchi Sea during the 2010 Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition, fish biodiversity characteristics, such as fish composition, dominant species, biodiversity, and faunal characteristics were conducted. We also discussed the responses of fishes to the quick changes in Arctic climate. The results showed that a total of 41 species in 14 families were recorded in these waters. The dominant species were Hippoglossoides robustus, Boreogadus saida, Myoxocephalus scorpius, Lumpenus fabricii, and Artediellus scaber. There were 35 coldwater species, accounting for 85.37%, and six cold temperate species, occupying 14.63%. The habitat types of fish could be grouped as follows: 35 species of demersal fishes, five benthopelagic fishes, and one pelagic fish. The Shannon-Wiener diversity index (H′) (range between 0 and 2.18, 1.21 on average) was not high, and descended from south to north. Climate change has caused some fishes to shift along their latitudinal and longitudinal distribution around the Arctic and Subarctic areas, and this could lead to the decline of Arctic fishery resources.