Abstract: The forkhead-associated (FHA) domain recognizes phosphothreonine (pT) with high specificity and functional diversity. TIFA (TRAF-interacting protein with an FHA domain) is the smallest FHA-containing human protein. Its overexpression was previously suggested to provoke NF-κB activation, yet its exact roles in this signaling pathway and the underlying molecular mechanism remain unclear. Here we identify a novel threonine phosphorylation site on TIFA and show that this phosphorylated threonine (pT) binds with the FHA domain of TIFA, leading to TIFA oligomerization and TIFA-mediated NF-κB activation. Detailed analysis indicated that unphosphorylated TIFA exists as an intrinsic dimer and that the FHA-pT9 binding occurs between different dimers of TIFA. In addition, silencing of endogenous TIFA resulted in attenuation of tumor necrosis factor alpha (TNF-α)-mediated downstream signaling. We therefore propose that the TIFA FHA-pT9 binding provides a previously unidentified link between TNF-α stimulation and NF-κB activation. The intermolecular FHA-pT9 binding between dimers also represents a new mechanism for the FHA domain.