The prawn culture industry is considered the most alluring of the aquaculture-based enterprises in the world. Although modern prawn culture had its roots only about 50 years ago, it has been getting more attention in recent years especially that prawn production from capture fisheries has leveled of In comparison with other aquaculture ventures, prawn culture plays a considerably greater role in nati8nal development, among others, bringing in foreign exchange, stimulating infrastructure development, serving to reclaim unproductive areas, and generating interest in the media. These benefits, however, have been blemished by some practices in the industry, which have caused serious impact to many coastal ecosystems. In recent years, with the advancement of the modern techniques of prawn culture, production in the Eastern and particularly in the Western Hemispheres has been steadily growing. In 1990, production was 535,500 tons in the Eastern Hemisphere and only 97,400 tons in the Western Hemisphere. In 1991, production was relatively the same in tile Eastern Hemisphere (556,500 tons) but increased by more than 37% in the Western Hemisphere (133,600 tons). If the production continues to increase at the present rate, prawn farmers could be producing more than one million tons by the end of this century. As the total production increases, however, the unit price tends to decrease. Prawn culture may no longer be attractive, the golden industry the people long for. This paper covers briefly some historical developments and the state of prawn culture in the Eastern and Western Hemispheres, with particular emphasis on Asia. By assessing current and past technical and non-technical factors, an attempt is made to ensure the firm and sound development of the prawn culture industry toward 2000.