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|Title: ||A study of radar backscattering from water surface in response to rainfall|
|Authors: ||Xinan Liu;Quanan Zheng;Ren Liu;Dan Wang;James H. Duncan;Shih-Jen Huang|
|Issue Date: ||2017-11-21T08:15:50Z
|Publisher: ||J. Geophys. Res. Oceans|
|Abstract: ||Abstract:In this paper, radar backscattering from a water surface in response to rainfall was studied. The paper consists of two parts. First, the spatial characteristics of raindrops in rain fields were analyzed based on published data and the response of a water surface to rainfall was experimentally studied in the laboratory. Rain-generated surface features including stalks, crowns, ring waves, and secondary drops were measured. It was found that stalks and crowns are dominant in terms of their height and energy. Second, the radar signatures of a rainfall event simultaneously observed by C band ENVISAT (European satellite), ASAR (Advanced Synthetic Aperture Radar), and ground-based weather radar in the Northwest Pacific were investigated. The relationship between the radar return intensity extracted from the C band ASAR image and the reflectivity factor (rain rate) obtained from ground-based weather radar was analyzed. For light/moderate rain (with low reflectivity factors), the radar backscattering intensity increases as the reflectivity factor increases. For heavy rain (with high reflectivity factors), the radar backscattering intensity decreases as the reflectivity factor increases. The maximum radar backscattering intensity occurs at a reflectivity factor of 45 dBZ (with rain rate of 24 mm/h). It was found that the spaceborne radar backscattering intensity strongly correlates with the average distance between the stalks on the water surface in the rain field in a nonlinear manner. The physics of the radar signatures of the rain event are explored.|
|Relation: ||121(3) pp.1546-1562|
|Appears in Collections:||[海洋環境資訊系] 期刊論文|
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