Background: Aquaculture faces many challenges over the next decade, notably, combating diseases andepizootics, broodstock improvement and domestication, development of appropriate feeds and feeding mechanisms, hatchery and grow-out technology, as well as water-quality management. These all present considerable scope for biotechnological and other technology interventions. Aquaculture biotechnology can be described as the scientific application of biological concepts that enhance the productivity and economic viability of its various industrial sectors (Liao and Chao, 1997) .
Objective: This paper is to introduce the conception of sustainable aquaculture, status, objective and how to enter the way of sustainability in Taiwan. The paper provides an overview of the current trends in marine aquaculture and highlights how the Taiwan aquaculturists employed various technological innovations that occurred in the management and production of aquatic resources. The purpose of the paper is to explain the role technological innovation played in meeting the growing worldwide consumer demand for aquatic species, and in dealing with scientific uncertainty regarding the potential negative impact of these advances on the aquatic environment, fish health and the socioeconomic circumstances.
Methods: We use the OECD definition of biotechnology: “The application of science and technology to living organisms, as well as parts, products and models thereof, to alter living or non-living materials for the production of knowledge, goods and services”. To revolutionize aquaculture, it is essential to apply modern biotechnology techniques. Taiwan aquaculturists conducting biotechnology research would adopt at least one of six technologies or processes, biotechnological techniques include (a) water environmental bioremediation technology, (b) -omics, bioinformatics and molecular breeding program to select superior aquatic seeds, (c) molecular nutrition and feed biotechnology to develop functional feed and additives, and(d) biosecurity management strategies for aquatic animals, (e) smart aquaculture facility ; including recirculation system and aquaponics system, and (f) application of ICT and IoT technology to establish national wide seafood traceability system.
Results: We find it useful to follow up on this overall definition, and elaborate on its practical applications within the marine culture biotechnology sector. One way of following up is to divide into six different researches and business sub-areas, as follows:
a) Microbial agents for environmental remediation, bio-control and probiotics; b) New genetic markers and breeding program to speed up the selection of new strain with good traits for industrial use; c) To develop green functional feed additives by nutrigenomics and molecular nutrition concepts, economical alternatives to fish meal as a protein source in aquaculture feeds; d) Providing new techniques for biosecurity management of aquatic species; e) Seafood traceability to ensuring bio-safety and food safety of aquaculture and fisheries; f) Smart aquaculture facility, including recirculation system and aquaponics system
Conclusion: The paper briefly reports the current progress in Taiwan and thrust areas in the use of probiotics for water environmental remediation, molecular markers for fish breeding and production of monosex and transgenesis, biotechnology in aquaculture nutrition and health management, gene banking, intelligent aquaculture facility and the seafood traceability system. The conclusions recapitulate some of the findings gained in this interdisciplinary analysis on the role of marine culture biotechnology in the management of aquatic resources, and emphasize the long-run perspective of technological innovation in fish and shellfish production.