|Abstract: ||中華人民共和國(以下簡稱中共)前主席毛澤東在中共建政初期即提出要建立一支強大的海軍，但此一構想在其有生之年並未實現，而其海軍戰略也停留在「近岸防禦」階段。鄧小平接手後提出「改革開放」政策，隨著中共經濟實力的逐漸提升與國防現代化的加速推動，海軍也逐步進行武器裝備的更新與建置，並將其軍種戰略由「近岸防禦」向「近海防禦」，甚至是「遠洋海軍」方向轉變。2016年2月1日中共宣布將原有的七大軍區是：北京軍區、瀋陽軍區、濟南軍區、南京軍區、廣州軍區、蘭州軍區和成都軍區；新建立的五大戰區是：東部戰區、南部戰區、西部戰區、北部戰區和中部戰區。中共當代主席習近平說，「戰區擔負著應對本戰略方向安全威脅、維護和平、遏制戰爭、打贏戰爭的使命。」這是中共近50年以來中共最大規模的軍事改革。中共軍報評論稱，解放軍的大規模改革將會逐步拋棄蘇聯式的指揮體系，向美國模式轉型。 自《1982年聯合國海洋法公約》在1994年11月16日正式生效後，專屬經濟海域之法律制度得以確立，各沿海國紛紛宣告將專屬經濟海域擴展到200浬。且各沿海國均有發生經濟海域重疊之問題，進而可能因漁業、石油資源的爭奪在重疊海域內產生嚴重衝突，本研究以中菲仲裁案作探討，目前菲律賓已向海牙國際常設仲裁法庭提出仲裁，主張之一逕將我國南沙太平島列成礁而非島，對我國影響甚鉅。 本篇論文先將中共海權從建政時期至當代領導人習近平主政之演變經過敘述，接著藉由研究2002年《黎吉丹島和錫巴淡島主權歸屬案》、2007年《尼加拉瓜與洪都拉斯在加勒比海的領土和海洋爭端案》及2008年《白礁、中岩礁和南礁主權歸屬案》三案中，法官如何適用有效統治檢視當事國於係爭島嶼之作為與相關之論述，利用該些論述與判準，進一步比較同樣主張南沙群島、西沙群島、中沙群島及東沙群島主權之中共與我國，在四群島之作為，是否符合有效統治要件。 最後以中菲仲裁案的判決對我國影響程度的研析及應有之作為，提出看法與建議，希望自身更加瞭解國際情勢的變化、主權伸張、島嶼間合法占領等相關知識能有所助益，也期望在工作職場上，能夠捍衛我國海域疆土、確保我國權益並不受他國欺侮侵犯及為強國所利用作為大國間海上競賽之工具。|
People's Republic of China (hereinafter referred to as China) former Chairman Mao Zedong in the early China that is proposed to build a powerful navy, but this idea has not been achieved in his lifetime, and its naval strategy also remain in the "coastal defense" stage . Deng Xiaoping took over the proposed "reform and opening" policy, accelerate gradually increase as China's economic strength and national defense modernization, the Navy also gradually build and update weaponry, and military services strategy from "coastal defense" to " coastal defense, "and even" blue-water navy, "the direction of change. February 1, 2016 China announced that the original seven military are: Beijing Military Region, Shenyang Military Region, Jinan Military Region, Nanjing Military Region, Guangzhou Military Region, Lanzhou Military Region and the Chengdu Military Region; five are newly established theater: theater in eastern and southern theater western theater, theater in northern and central theater. President Xi Jinping said that contemporary China, "the theater bears cope with the strategic direction of the security threats and maintain peace, deter war, the mission of winning the war." It is nearly 50 years since the Chinese military reform China's largest. Chinese army newspaper commentary said that large-scale reform of the PLA will gradually abandon Soviet-style command system to the US model transformation. Since the November 16, 1994 entered into force "of the 1982 United Nations Convention," the legal regime of the exclusive economic zone has been established, the coastal States have declared Exclusive Economic Zone extends to 200 nautical miles. Problems economic zone overlaps have occurred, and thus may be due to competition for fisheries, oil resources have a serious conflict in the overlapping waters of this study was to China and the Philippines to explore for arbitration, the Philippines currently has tribunal in The Hague for arbitration, claims one the diameter of the Nansha Taiping Island reefs rather than move to the island, very huge impact on our country. This paper first Chinese sea power from period to build political evolution of contemporary leaders in power after Xi Jinping described, followed by research in 2002, "Li Jidan Batam Island and tin Sovereignty case" in 2007, "between Nicaragua and Honduras Caribbean territorial and maritime dispute "and 2008" Pedra Branca, middle rocks and South Ledge sovereignty case "the three cases, the judge how effective the rule applicable to the parties view as a system associated with the discussion of the islands dispute, the use of the Criteria of some discussion and further compare the same proposition People's Republic of China and China Nansha Islands, Paracel Islands, Dongsha Islands and Dongsha Islands sovereignty, as the four islands, the effective compliance with rule requirements. Finally, the Philippines arbitration ruling on Chinese extent as the proper research and analysis, put forward their views and suggestions, hoping to better understand the changes in the international situation itself, sovereignty done, inter-island legitimate occupation and other related knowledge can be helpful , also expected in the workplace, it is possible to defend our sea territory, to ensure that our interests are not violated and bullied by his country as powerful as the use of sea between the great powers of the competition tool.