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Title: 中央選舉委員會獨立性之研究
A Study on the Independency of the Central Election Commission.
Authors: Wu, Chien-Sheng
Contributors: NTOU:Institute of the Law of the Sea
Keywords: 獨立機關;中央選舉委員會;國家通訊傳播委員會;公平交易委員會;中央銀行;金融監督管理委員會
Independent agencies;the Central Election Commission;the National Communications Commission;the Fair Trade Commission;the Central Bank;the Financial Supervisory Commission
Date: 2015
Issue Date: 2017-05-22T07:59:03Z
Abstract: 獨立機關是我國近年開始發展出來的一種新的行政組織,它的發源地在美國,源自於美國的獨立管制委員會(或稱獨立行政委員會)。面對我國獨立行政機關在政府體制上,無論是委員產生方式、職權行使及其他行政機關之權限劃分等,都亦產生諸多爭議。 惟在強調權力分立與制衡的國家體制下,獨立機關之設立確為一種特殊的體制。而隨著行政院對國家通訊傳播委員會(我國第一個獨立行政機關)組織法提出釋憲案,大法官亦隨之於釋字第六一三號解釋中,宣告國家傳播委員會組織法第4條有關委員產生的方式違憲,使得我們不得不重新審視一個獨立行政機關之合憲性基礎為何?其獨立性又如何能滿足現代民主法治之憲政要求? 中選會在法制上被確立為獨立機關,且對我國而言具有深遠的民主意涵,由於選舉決策與相關事務涉及政治遊戲規則的訂定、執行與仲裁,因此為確保選舉投票等遊戲規則的公正性,重新檢視中選會的法制定位與角色功能,是現階段政府組織改造進一步深化必須面對的重要議題。 本研究認為獨立行政機關之制度既然有其討論之必要,就須按其各獨立機關之組織法,包括設立依據、設立目的、組織型態、委員遴選方式、職權行使及與其他行政機關之權限劃分等,利用文獻搜集的方式加以分析,藉由文獻的回顧,歸納整理獨立機關的相關理論,包括獨立機關的源起、獨立機關的建置原則、獨立機關之監督課責等資料,以迅速瞭解議題之意涵及發掘研究問題,並深究歷年來的重大爭議事件,從不同層面之觀點進而思考我國未來發展的方向;並以「中央選舉委員會獨立性之研究」為主題,探究我國中選會之實務運作情形,期望藉此研究之結論與建議,提供我國中央選舉委員會獨立性設計之方向,甚至能拓展至其他獨立機關,為我國獨立行政機關相關法令及實務運作之參考。 關鍵詞:獨立機關、中央選舉委員會、國家通訊傳播委員會、公平交易委員會、 中央銀行、金融監督管理委員會。
Independent agencies are a new type of administrative organizations developed in the country in recent years. Its birthplace is the United States, and the origin is the independent regulatory commission (or independent administrative committee) in the United States. Given the context of the government system in our country, independent agencies have created a lot of controversies regardless of the way their members are selected, the exercise of their authorities, and the separation of their authorities from other administrative agencies’. However, under a national system which emphasizes the separation of powers and checks and balances, independent agencies indeed belong to a special system. With the constitutional interpretations proposed by the Executive Yuan on the Organization Act of the National Communications Commission (the country's first independent administrative agency), the grand justice declared in the interpretation ref. Shi-613 that Article 4 of the National Communication Committee’s Organization Act concerning the selection of its members is unconstitutional. Therefore, we have to re-examine what the basis of constitutionality of an independent administrative agency is, and how its independence can meet the constitutional requirements of a modern democracy. The Central Election Commission is established as an independent agency in the legal system, and to our country it has a far-reaching implication of democracy. Because election decisions and related matters involve the enactment, execution and arbitration of the of rules of the political game, in order to ensure fairness of the rules of election and voting, a re-examination of the legal positioning, role and function of the Central Election Commission is an important issue which must be faced with at this stage for further deepening of the government organization reform. This study suggests that since the system of independent administrative agencies needs to be discussed, literature concerning the organization act of each independent agency needs to be collected and analyzed, including the basis of establishment, the purpose of establishment, the organization structure, the manner the members are selected, the exercise of powers and the separation of its authority from other administrative agencies’, etc.. Independent agency related theories are collated and analyzed through literature review, including the source of independent agencies, the principle of independent agencies’ establishment, and independent agencies’ supervision responsibilities, etc. in order to quickly understand the implication of the issue and explore research topics. Major controversies over the years are also studied in depth so as to ponder from different perspectives the future direction of our country’s development. Furthermore, "A Study of the independence of the Central Election Commission" is selected as the theme to explore the practical operation of our country’s Central Election Commission. We expect to offer the conclusions and recommendations of this study as a direction for the design of the independence of the Central Election Commission, and even have them escalated to other independent agencies to serve as a reference for the relevant laws and practical operation of our country’s independent administrative agencies. Keywords: independent agencies, the Central Election Commission, the National Communications Commission, the Fair Trade Commission, the Central Bank, the Financial Supervisory Commission.
URI: http://ethesys.lib.ntou.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=G0040146116.id
Appears in Collections:[海洋法律研究所] 博碩士論文

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