|Abstract: ||引水係指在一定水域內由熟悉當地水文等資訊之專業人員，引領船舶安全進出或泊靠作業，良好的引水作業可以保障海上人命財產之安全、提高海上運輸及港埠營運之效能。引水亦是一種資源，其具有公益及主權性質、為保障船舶安全、維護海上交通秩序及避免產生海事事故，故國際上大多數國家均透過立法方式將引水制度法制化。即透過法律之規定強制要求達一定噸位或特定船型之船舶於指定水域內，強制僱用引水人引航，此即強制引水制度，而強制引水亦為引水制度之實施核心。 而引水人係指具法規要求之引水資格者，從事引領船舶進出港埠、沿海、内河、湖泊、航道及離靠碼頭並指揮及提供航行安全建議之專門職業及技術人員。而參照各國之法律規定及現今學界等之通說見解，引水人在船之法律地位係乃以專業知能提供船長安全航行之建議，此即為航行顧問說。我國引水法第32條及船員法第58條1項亦採此說。 各國對於引水人之來源及基本資格並不一致，但大多均要求具有一定海上航行經驗之海員或就讀引水相關科系之畢業生。如中國之引水人基本資格為具大專學歷之中國籍及持有二副以上證書者。日本之引水人資格則為大專相關科系具日本籍並有一定期間之海上航行經驗者。香港引水人則需具大專相關系科及有一定期間之海上航行經驗者。新加坡則為具4年以上航行經驗之甲級船員。我國引水人則需具有3年以上之船長經驗。至於引水人執業證書之取得，則不外是通過引水考試，再加上一定法定時數之引水實務學習，並經考評合格者，即可取得執業證書。 世上各國於強制引水水域均設有一家以上之引水組織提供該水域之引水服務。其組織型態有以港埠管理營運機構轄下之一部門，亦有類似合夥人型態之聯合事務所，或有以公司型態成立者。引水組織之任務主要為接受引水招請及調度引水人上船領航。我國各港埠引水人辦事處雖係依法規定設立，但因不具法人格，故不得享有權利負擔義務，亦無從發出要約承諾等意思表示，其組織型態較接近引水人聯合事務所。 在引水人管理監督上，我國依法設有海事評議小組為海事事件之調查及評議，並提供司法機關及航政主管機關為判決及處分之參考。惟主管機關所作之處分均依據該評議書之建議為之。在引水處罰類型部分，若引水人係違反行政法上之義務者，依法處以一定金額罰鍰。但若為違反內部紀律規定者則所受之懲戒罰，有警告處分及收回執業證書3月至2年。然我國因引水人組織之型態所致，未能發揮懲戒應有功能。有關引水人之執業責任，由於引水過程中，引水人是以顧問地位提供航行建議，船舶之指揮仍為船長之權力，是故引水人之過失所造成之損害，仍應由船長或船舶所有人負擔，即引水人不直接對船舶所有人以外受損害的第三者負責。 本研究建議要點計有：一、引水人組織應予法人化，以強化其自律功能。二、強制引水人加入職業責任保險，以轉嫁執業時所產生之風險責任及損失。三、引水人來源多樣化，可藉由放寬引水人應考資格及設立引水人專班（校），另可將引水人考試改為基本能力考，於通過後再施予一定期間之實務訓練，藉此除可彌補引水人力短缺狀況，亦可藉由市場機制汰弱扶強。四、開放引水市場，藉由開放單一港埠之引水組織獨占性，如多家引水辦事處或引水人事務所，讓船舶所有人或船長得以選任適當之引水人領航，也藉此競爭以提升引水人服務品質。五、引水人在職教育訓練法制化，即以法律規定需定期辦理引水人在職教育，而引水人於換發執業證書時，應有一定時數之教育訓練，方可換發。另透過教育訓練讓引水人熟悉現今航海設備，並維持引水人保持一定水準之專業技能。六、引水作業程序標準化，透過一定之標準作業程序及內外部之稽核，以減少及避免可能造成之人命、財產及環境污染等事故發生。|
A pilot is a professional who is familiar with the local hydrology in certain waters, piloting the ship in and out or berthing safely. Good piloting operation can ensure safety of human lives and property at sea, and improve the efficiency of marine transportation and operation of ports and harbors. Pilot is also a resource which has the nature of public interest and sovereignty. In order to ensure the safety of ships, maintain the order of marine transportation and avoid marine accidents, most countries have legalized pilot institutions. The provision of the law requires a certain tonnage of the ships or specific ships in designated waters to mandatorily hire pilots. This is the compulsory pilot institution which is also the core of the practice of pilot institution. Pilots are professional and technical personnel who provide advices and direct the safety of sailing, qualified with regulatory requirements, engaged in piloting ships in and out of ports, seacoasts, rivers, lakes, waterways and docks. According to laws in most countries and the recognized law theories nowadays, the legal status of pilots is the sailing advisers with professional competence providing advices for captains to sail safely. This is the Sailing Consultant theory. The Article 32 of the Pilotage Law and the Article 58 of the Seafarer Act in our country take the same view. The source and the basic qualifications of pilots in most countries are not consistent, but most of them require a seafarer with a certain experience of sailing or a person graduated in related departments of pilot. For example, the basic requirements of pilots in China are college education, China nationality and above the 2nd Officer certificate. The qualifications of Japanese pilots are related college education, Japan nationality and a certain period of sailing experience. The pilots in Hong Kong are required related college education and a certain period of sailing experience. In Singapore, a pilot is a Grade A crew with more than 4 year sailing experience. Pilots in our country are required above 3 year experience of being captains. In order to obtain a pilot license, people have to pass the exam of pilot, a certain mandatory hours of pilot practice and qualified with evaluation. Every country in the world sets up more than one pilot organizations to provide pilot services in compulsory pilot waters. The types of organizations include joint offices similar to partnership, or companies. The main task of pilot organizations is to accept any vessel requiring calling a pilot and dispatching a pilot to pilot. Although the pilot’s local agency in every port in our country is set up by law, because of lacking personality, it has no right, no duties and not able to offer and accept expressions. The type of organization is close to pilot joint venture. About the management and supervision of the pilot, our country sets up a maritime enquiry by law to deal with marine investigation and appraisal, and to provide the reference for judgments of the judicial organization and decisions of the competent authority. However, the decisions made by the competent authority follow the suggestions made by the review decision. About the types of penalties, if a pilot violates the obligations on the administrative acts should be punished a certain amount of fines. But if a pilot violates internal disciplines, the disciplinary punishments are warning and withdrawing the pilot license for 3 months to 2 years. However, the types of pilot organizations make them lose the functions to punish pilots. About the responsibility of pilots, because the role of pilots is a consultant to provide sail suggestions, the power to command ships belongs to the captain. Therefore, the captain or the ship owner should take responsibility for the loss caused by the pilot’s negligence; namely the pilot is not directly responsible for the loss of the third party other than the ship owner. This study suggests that a) A pilot organization should be corporatized to enhance its self-discipline function. b) Mandatory a pilot to join professional liability insurance to shift the risk of liability and loss arising during practice. c) Diversify the sources of the pilot by broadening the qualifications of pilot exams and setting up special schools. Or change the pilot examination to a basic ability test: when people pass the exam, they can be trained in a certain period. Therefore, these ways can not only make up for shortages in manpower, but also eliminate the weak and remain the strong by market mechanisms. d) Open the pilot market. By setting up pilot offices or pilot firms, the ship owner or the captain can appoint an appropriate pilot, and also improve the service quality of piloting by competition. e) Institutionalize the pilot on job education and training, namely the on job training of the pilot should be regulated by law. When the pilot renews the license, he shall have a certain number of hours of education and training. Moreover, education and training can make the pilot familiar with new navigation equipment, and make the pilot maintain a certain level of expertise. f) Standardize operation procedures of piloting by certain standard operation procedures and the internal and external auditing to reduce and prevent possible loss of human lives, property and environmental pollution accidents.