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A Study For the Territorial Sovereignty of the Batanes Islands .
|Authors: ||Cheng, Ching-An|
|Contributors: ||NTOU:Institute of the Law of the Sea|
Batanes;territorial sovereignty;international law;sovereignty
|Issue Date: ||2017-05-22T07:58:56Z
|Abstract: ||巴丹群島位於台灣與菲律賓之間，距離台灣約190公里，由10個小島組成，附近海域自古即為臺灣傳統魚場，島上居民語言可與臺灣蘭嶼島上雅美族(達悟族)人相通。自1895年日本與西班牙2國簽訂了日西協議之後，雙方約定以當時可航行之巴士水道為界，以北劃屬日本，巴丹群島於法理上已視同日本領土。日本據台時期，日本更於1930年臺灣漁業法中將巴丹群島附近海域劃入臺灣行政管轄區內，臺灣漁船得至附近海域從事漁業行為。惟至第2次世界大戰之後，日本戰敗投降，其並於舊金山和約(第3條)中明確說明同意將北緯29度以南佔領區送交聯合國之信託統治制度提議。在此提案獲得通過之前，美國對上述地區、所屬居民與所屬海域得擁有實施行政、立法、司法之權利。因此，美國於當時係以戰勝國之地位暫時行使巴丹群島之行政管轄權，依舊金山和約之內容，從法理上而論，該群島之領土主權，並非為美國所有，而係仍有待聯合國為後續處理。 1946年7月4日菲律賓正式獨立，美國將該行政管轄權移交與菲律賓行使。菲律賓雖於獨立時之憲法上位將該地納入其領土範圍，惟卻於1961年6月16日制定公布了第3046號共和國法，假藉以發現新島嶼之事實，以國際法上先佔原則宣稱擁有該群島領土主權，政市將該地哪入其領土範圍。菲律賓並將附近海域視同內海，他國機艦要通過勿近海域，必須先行向其通報，更禁止他國漁船至其200海浬經濟區範圍內從事漁業作業，致使臺灣漁船近年來近海域作業時無端遭其扣押，甚且發生海上喋血事件。本文希望藉由此次之研究，確認巴丹群島領土主權地位之歸屬有，以提供解決臺菲海界之一思考方向。|
Located in-between Taiwan and the Philippines, the Batanes is formed by ten small islands at an approximate distance of 190km from Taiwan. The waters have been a traditional fishing ground of Taiwan’s fishermen, and the residents of the islands have a language similar to Taiwan’s Amis (Dawu), residents of Taiwan’s Lanyu (Orchid Island). In 1895, Japan and Spain signed an agreement that drew a line by the center of the sailable part of the Bashi Channel and assigned the waters north of this line to the sovereignty of Japan. Legally, the Batanes have since become part of the territory of Japan. During the Japanese Colonial Period in Taiwan, the Japanese Government took a further step to include the waters surrounding the Batanes in the administrative jurisdiction of Taiwan in the 1930 Taiwan Fishery Law, which allowed Taiwan’s vessels to conduct fishing activities in these waters. After World War II, the Japanese declared defeat and agreed to surrender the territories south of 29ºNL to the UN trustee in the Treaty of San Francisco (Article 3). Before the Treaty came into force, the US was entrusted to implement administrative, legislative and legal rights to the above-stated areas, the residents and the waters. Based on which, the US was exercising administrative rights on the Batanes on a temporary basis as entrusted by the Allied Nations. Therefore, based on the Treaty of San Francisco, the US is not the rightful owner of sovereignty of the Batanes; instead the sovereignty of the Batanes is pending on the follow-up decisions of the UN. On July 4th 1946, the Philippines declared independence and the US handed administrative rights of the Batanes over to the new government of the Philippines. Although the Filipino Government included the Batanes in its constitution enforced upon independence, its sovereignty of the islands was never recognized by the international society until the Republic Act No. 3046 enforced on June 16th 1961. The Republic Act No. 3046 declared discoveries of the islands of Batanes and officially claimed the sovereignty of the territories based on the principles of uti possidetis. The Philippines simultaneously claimed the surrounding waters as the nation’s inner seas and demanded foreign aircraft and marine vessels to declare themselves before entering the waters. The nation also banned foreign fishing vessels from engaging in any fishing activities within 200 nautical miles of the economic zone. This policy caused many Taiwanese fishing vessels to be wrongfully detained and even involved in violence. This dissertation aims to explore the sovereignty of the Batanes and provide a direction of thinking for the efforts to resolve the disputes between the Philippines and Taiwan on sea borders.
|Appears in Collections:||[海洋法律研究所] 博碩士論文|
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