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Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/42581

Title: 東亞薯榔的貿易與工藝──以漁網、船帆、衣服防腐為中心
The Trading and Technology of Dye-root in East Asia--A Focus on Fishing Net, Sailcloth and Clothes Preservatives
Authors: Chia, Li-Wen
賈俐文
Contributors: NTOU:Institute of Oceanic Culture
國立臺灣海洋大學:海洋文化研究所
Keywords: 薯榔;薯莨;防腐染料;染網;染帆;染衣
Dye-root;Dye-yam;Cunao;Củ n#westeur035#u;Faux Gambier;Preservative;Fishing Net Dyeing;Sailcloth Dyeing;Dress Dyeing
Date: 2014
Issue Date: 2017-05-22T07:50:10Z
Abstract: 在中國傳統染網、帆、衣之防腐染料中,最具代表性者,當為薯榔。薯榔是一種生長山區的藤本植物,塊莖因富含單寧,除單純改變色澤,還具有防腐、防水、爽膚不黏身的功能,中國大陸長江以南、越南、臺灣、琉球都有分佈。本論文以地區別,分述薯榔在當地的利用情形。末章則討論「薯榔染」防腐工藝。 在中國,薯榔最早以中藥名「赭魁」見諸文獻,北宋時在南方被作為鞣料,明代文獻頻繁可見在閩粵被用於染色外,還被水上工作者用來染衣與漁網以防腐及防水,清代以降利用其利水堅緻特性者又擴及浙江與廣西,廣東還用以染就夏服莨紗綢,流行一時。閩粵桂雖盛產薯榔,但因用量大,尚需仰賴進口。 在臺灣,可能於荷西時期,中國商人即與臺灣原住民交易取得薯榔,運販大陸。清領時期,臺灣漢人對薯榔染色、染網的利用及與大陸的貿易仍然持續,至清領末期,赭色薯榔衫已成臺灣沿海漁戶的特徵。日治時期,薯榔持續銷往大陸,浙江、福建是主要市場。日本人對薯榔也不乏調查,並開發出製成墨水、船底防腐塗料等新的應用。基於戰時對可鞣革單寧材料的迫切需求,日人曾有意將臺灣薯榔輸往日本,日治末期還將單寧含量較佳的廣東種薯榔移植臺灣。 在越南,18世紀至20世紀中前期的文獻顯示薯榔被廣泛用來染衣,乾隆年間就有經邊境輸往中國的記載。近代,北越是中國地區薯榔主要的進口地。貿易路線有沿西江流域河道直運到廣東者,或經河道、鐵路運到海港再往中國的海路。前者以河道水淺運販有限,海路才是中越薯榔貿易的大宗。越南薯榔主要銷往兩粵市場,1930年代後,因中國提高關稅與莨紗綢的沒落,貿易量逐漸消退。 末章整理防腐原理,並按操作步驟逐步討論薯榔染防腐工藝。冷染是近代較常見且符合科學理論的方式,用以磨碎薯榔有各式偏好的工具。新網染曬次數多,至少3遍以上,舊網可減少。水對薯榔的比例,在3倍左右,汁液務必除去薯榔渣再浸泡,否則乾後很難處理。用不完的薯榔可埋在砂中,以防腐爛。
Dye-root is the most representative traditional preservative in China. It is a perennial vine whose roots are rich in tannin, and has the function of color dying, preservative, waterproof and cooling. It distributes over southern China, Taiwan, Vietnam and Ryukyu. In this thesis, the uses of Dye-root in various regions are discussed. The procedures of Dye-root dying are also described in the last chapter. In ancient China, Dye-root showed up in documents as a medicine named "Zhekui". It was used as tanning material in southern China in the Sung Dynasty. In Ming Dynasty, it was used quite often as the dying stuff and also used by fishermen to dye clothes and fishing net in Fujang and Gwandong. In Qing Dynasty and later on, not only in Fujang and Gwandong, but also in Zhejiang and Guangxi, Dye-root was used as a preservative. The cloth called Gambiered Guangdong Silk with Dye-root was used in making summer clothing and became popular in Gwandong. Dye-root were plentiful in Fujang, Gwandong and Guangxi, but the using amount was so large that imports were still necessary. In Taiwan, during the Dutch and Spanish Occupation period, Chinese businessmen might have already gotten Dye-root from aborigines and traded them to China. In Qing Dynasty, the Han people still used Dye-root as dying stuff and preservative and continued the Dye-root business with China. In the late of Qing Occupation period, umber Dye-root clothes had become an identification of Taiwan fishermen. During the Japanese Occupation period, Japanese did a lot of researches of Dye-root and found it can be the ink and ship preservative coating. Because of the need of tanning material, Japanese government tried to introduce it to mainland Japan. In the late of Japanese Occupation period, for the same reason, Japanese government transplanted the Gwandong Dye-root to Taiwan. In Vietnam, the documents in 18th to the middle of 19th century showed Dye-root been used to dye clothes wildly. It had been traded to China during Qianlong period, and Vietnam is the most important import area of Dye-root in China in modern times. There are some trading routes, one is flowing to Gwandong by Shi River, and the other is to harbor in Vietnam by river or train first, then transport to China by ship. The latter route handled much more business. The Dye-root preservative technology which based on the combination of scientific theory and practice experience is described in the last chapter. Cold dye is often used in modern times. There are several kinds of tools to grind Dye-root. Brand new fishing nets need to be dyed for many times, usually more than three, the old ones need not. The ratio of water and Dye-root, is about 3. Dye-root residues need to be removed or it will be stuck on after drying up. The excess Dye-root can be covered by sands to prevent from rot.
URI: http://ethesys.lib.ntou.edu.tw/cgi-bin/gs32/gsweb.cgi?o=dstdcdr&s=G001999C001.id
http://ntour.ntou.edu.tw:8080/ir/handle/987654321/42581
Appears in Collections:[海洋文化研究所] 博碩士論文

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